The Nicaraguan Revolution (1981-1990) in Central America became an important front in the Cold War proxy struggles in the late 1970s, and was one of several areas in the war that was particularly tumultuous. …
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The Sandinistas aligned Nicaragua with Cuba and the Soviet bloc, a stark contrast from the former regime’s relations with the United States. This alignment, along with a continuous supply of weapons flowing across the border to communist rebels in El Salvador, provoked several forms of US action (Chiet). The significance of this period of the period of revolution and civil war in Nicaragua from 1981 through 1990 is observed in President Reagan’s lobbying for action. In 1983, Reagan stated: "There can be no question: the security of all the Americas is at stake in Central America. If we cannot defend ourselves there, we cannot expect to prevail elsewhere." For Reagan, there were four goals in Nicaragua. The first was to push for democratic development, fair elections, and human freedom. Second was an economic recovery and development as a response to the digressions made by revolutionaries. Third was to establish security for America and its allies against Cuba and the Soviet Bloc, and the fourth and final goal was to support dialogue and negotiation within and between Central American countries in order to resolve problems. For Nicaraguans, it was a matter of preserving an old lifestyle or embracing a new one, which quickly deteriorated into a matter of life and death. Furthermore, the new Nicaraguan government had the capacity to encourage coups in neighboring nations destabilizing the region. ...
As a result of the earthquake, foreign aid was poured into the country, and Somoza declared emergency powers. However, these powers were used to claim and pocket a significant amount of the foreign aid, adding Somoza’s personal wealth. Violence erupted between Somoza’s ruling party and the opposing Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) that sought to terrorize and depose Somoza. This conflict continued with sporadic violence between the state and the resistance until 1979, when the Sandinistas established control over Nicaragua (Chiet). The revolution beginning in 1981 was a result of the formation of the Nicaraguan Democratic Force (FDN), a counterrevolutionary group that the Sandinistas referred to as the Contras. As early as 1979, disorganized groups of peasants in the Nicaraguan highlands began to resist the social policies implemented by Sandinista agents coming from the Pacific lowlands (Brown 13). The more official Contra force, the FDN itself, was formed later on by resistant peasants as well as local tribesmen and many former soldiers of the Somoza era. Also joining these groups were Catholics and Protestants, whose religion was opposed by the Sandinistas. American support for the FDN began when only 2,000 fighters had assembled. However, by 1983 that number was closer to 6,000 (Chiet). US support for the Contras varied over the years, but usually came in the form of foreign aid. Congress continually disapproved of the Reagan administration’s initiative on funding the Contras, and passed several laws prohibiting funding of any actions that supported the toppling of the Sandinista government in Nicaragua. The administration and the CIA, however, began funneling private funds, arms from an Iranian businessman, as
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The paper attempts to assess the degree to which Johnson’s decisions to escalate, or seek a negotiated end to, the Vietnam War could be seen as a reaction to American public opinion; as well as the extent to which the lack of public support for the conflict in Southeast Asia overshadowed Johnson’s efforts to build the “Great Society”, and contributed to a deterioration of his public image.
USS Constitution vs. HMS Guerriere (War of 1812)
This essay shall provide an analysis of the battle between the USS Constitution and HMS Guerriere and the impact of such battle on the overall turnout of the War of 1812. Its thesis shall revolve around the consideration that the USS Constitution was a mighty warship which rightfully earned its nickname, “Old Ironsides.” Firstly, this paper shall provide an overview of the War of 1812.
Largely, the Dessert storm operation succeeded in uprooting Saddam occupation from Kuwait territory, but this operation that was otherwise supposed to be lead by the United Nations forces become a triggering conflict that was drawn down to relations between the US and Iraq.
James Fearon (2007), defines a civil war as "a violent conflict within a country fought by organized groups that aim to take power at the center or in a region, or to change government policies". Since it is a protracted internal violence and as compared to interstate wars it may last for decades (Fearon and Laitin 2003; Fearon 2004), therefore it can be differentiated from revolution or coup d'etat.
Essentially, the notion of the cold war is enigmatic since the major counties in the center of it never actually took up arms against each other in “hot wars”. American and The USSR were embroiled in an ideological contention; American was democratic and capitalistic, whereas Russia was a communist country, this meant that it was led by a single dictator who exercised control all the economic aspects therein.
There was delegation of Chapter VII powers of the council to the US and the US was required to carry out coalition agreement for the two countries (Chesterman 23). During the coalition agreement, the council decided to rest case until the already initiated operation of Desert Storm had been cleared.
The war presented several real life factors that presented differences and difficulties to the American war thus stifling the American commitment to victory. Among such differences in the Geographic and environmental conditions, the types of enemy, the differences in the logistical tactics and the technology of the opponent often presented the American forces with dire challenges thus compelling the use of the archaic military weapon in a bid to end the war sooner.
The United States, however, was led by people who thought that the Japanese simply would never do this, therefore the evidence that they were going to do this was disregarded. With regards to Iraq, the United States,
While united States claim withdrawing as a way of changing their fighting tactics, the North seems to have outsmarted them (Rottman 67-9). The particular of scene of Battler of Khe Sanh underscores the epicenter of the war and gives the insight into the true picture of