Nobody downloaded yet

Paraphrasing - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
ABSTRACT Temperature polarization coefficients of a process can be calculated along with heat transfer coefficients, membrane surface temperatures and heat flux components of the process through heat transfer analysis using heat and mass transfer equations…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER91.4% of users find it useful
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample

Download file to see previous pages The heat transfer resistances are determined by the feed flow rate and feed concentration, feed temperature and other operating parameters. The system heat transfer is controlled by the heat transfer in the membrane the resistance of which is 27-46 times higher than that of feed stream. 1. Heat Transfer The total heat flux (Q), across the membrane is expressed by the following equation: (1) Where, U is the overall heat transfer coefficient is bulk temperature difference among the feed and permeate sides J is the trans-membrane mass flux is the latent heat of vaporization Under steady state conditions, derived from the heat balance, the heat transfer in the individual compartments of system is represented by the following equation: (2) On the basis of equation 8, and, or the temperatures on both sides of the membrane can be estimated using the following equations: (3) (4) Further the heat transfer coefficient of the membrane (hm) can be determined on the basis of thermal conductivities of the membraneand of the vapor that fills the pores, using the equation 5. (5) The heat transfer coefficients of the boundary layer and can next be estimated experimentally or can be calculated using empirical correlations of dimensionless groups, namely Nussselt number (Nu), Reynolds number (Re) and Prandtl number (Pr). These numbers can be calculated directly from the data available for aqueous NaCl solutions and water, using the equation 6. ...
The primary set up included pure water operated at four selected feed temperatures viz. 40, 50, 60 and 70?C. 3. Membrane distillation coefficient and pure water flux The vapor pressure differencewas calculated at the membrane surface temperaturesand, and plotted against the steady state fluxes obtained at selected feed temperatures as illustrated in Fig 4. On the basis of equation (1), it can be concluded that the slope of the straight line of the plot thus obtained gives the value of membrane distillation coefficient, (C= 0.0004 kg/m2.h.Pa or C= 1.11E-7 kg/m2.s.Pa). The membrane distillation coefficient remains constant for a specific membrane and vapor properties. The experimentally determined value of C was equivalent to the value reported in literature (C= 8.5E-7 kg/m2.s.Pa). 4. Effect of feed temperature on permeate flux Permeate flux is largely dependent on fee temperature. Fluxes of pure water and aqueous NaCl solution is represented in Fig. 6. Elevation of feed temperature leads to a rise in permeate flux as a consequence of rise in vapor pressure of gas-liquid interface on liquid feed side, which causes a simultaneous increase in the driving force of mass transfer. 5. Effect of feed flow rate on permeate flux At a constant temperature the mass flux is dependent on feed flow rate as depicted in Fig. 7 showing the flux time curve at four feed flow rate at a constant temperature of 40?C. The mass flux rate is directly proportional to feed flow rate since a rise in feed flow rate causes a rise in turbulence, reduction of heat transfer resistance in the boundary layers and consequential rise in mass transfer rates. Moreover, the increase of feed boundary heat transfer coefficientwith Reynolds number lead to further rise ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Paraphrasing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Paraphrasing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words - 1)
“Paraphrasing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words - 1”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
Paraphrasing Assignment
...Paraphrasing Assignment First Paragraph: [T]he two lovers are indeed so lost in each other as to be almost completely oblivious to what is going on around them. There is surely no self-assertion here. Nor does there seem to be any in the lady in black who, in praying to God, is surrendering herself to the Deity. Both the couple and the lady in black represent a strong contrast to Edna, who never really achieves the loss of self in love for another, and who is never portrayed as submitting herself to worship God in communion with others. (225) Paraphrased version: Both the lovers and the lady in black move in such fashion as how they ought to be by nature, remaining as they are, not departing from the consistent...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Summarising and Paraphrasing
...?SUMMARIZING AND PARAPHRASING Essay The reading The reading “The United Arab Emirates: The Twenty-First Century Beckons” by Jim Grant, Fatema Shabbir Golawala, and Donelda S. McKechnie focuses on the current position and increased influence of the United Arab Emirates in the global platform. The research notes that the United Arab Emirates is now concentrating on tourism, building and construction, sports, and real estate after shifting its reliance from the oil industry (Grant, Golawala, & McKechnie 2007 p. 507). As such, this research addresses the research question, which seeks to establish the factors, which promote business in UAE in the twenty-first century in (Grant, Golawala, & McKechnie 2007 p. 507). The research describes...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Paraphrasing Practice his mother/parents can pose more threat to the world than a fetus that is medically removed before it becomes a living organism/individual. a. My understanding of the statements of friend changed drastically after I used active listening. At first, I was prejudiced against his view and thought that he was arguing for free sex, without taking into account the serious problems that it would create. However, once I slowed down to paraphrase his statements, I began to see how I misinterpreted some of his views, and could have argued against those in an infuriated state of mind. He got sufficient time to explain his point of view clearly because I held my views until his argument, my paraphrasing, and his...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Quoting & Paraphrasing (df4)
..., valuable guidelines on how to set up and follow up quotations are expounded upon in this rich text, as well as how to best embed a quotation to a sentence. Other important aspects of quotation such as how much one ought to quote, word change possibilities in quotations, indicating quotations within quotations, the use of punctuation during quotation, and so on, are also given special mention in the text. The second article, Paraphrasing (2008) talks about how to avoid plagiarism through the art of paraphrasing. The author advises that the easiest way to avoid plagiarism when performing a research is by using multiple sources of information regarding the topic. However, on occasions when one has only one source...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
...Introduction: This experiment relates to the concentration of solutes present in the substances. In a solution, concentration can be measured by dividing the number of moles present in the solute by the amount of liters. The units used for the measurement of concentration are unit of molarity (M) and (mol/L). In order to understand the significance of molarity and understand concentration, it was important to make four solutions from one sample during the experiment. Spec 20 was used in the experiment to calculate the absorbance because it can absorb the light very well. It was used because in order to make a solution more concentrated, absorption of more light is required. In order to measure the calculations in the form of a graph, Beer... This...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
...Images of Organization al Affiliation) Organizations as organisms In order to drive the point home, it is advisable that an organization be deemed as a living unit. It is very crucial that an organization’s management is geared towards meeting the needs of the organization as a whole and the connection that an organization shares with its environment. This type of illustration clearly differs from organizations that are bureaucratic in nature and it has been noted that their stark differences are applicable to one another in terms of their abilities to meet their varying demands. According to Strüver, by alluding to the organization as a living unit, it enables for a comprehensive analysis of the environment’s organization and enables one... of...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
Quoting & Paraphrasing (dp4)
...Quoting and Paraphrasing The two materials talk about the issue of quotation as well as paraphrasing of works. On the sideof quotations, the material has exhaustively dwelt on some of the ways in which one can successfully use quotations. This regards the when and where the quotations may be used. Relevant to the above, it is important to note that quotations can always be used to strengthen arguments. Quotations can also be used to add emphasis to some sources used in an academic topic, as well as form a tool for analyzing how other people may use language. Direct quotes should always not speak for themselves. One should always explain the quotes after using them. A proper analysis of the quotes should always be...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
...Paraphrasing Paraphrasing A good poetry is one that is not emotional in nature but should express a particular emotion. A good poet is one who can write with restrictions such as restriction of the amount of words used in a poem and the use of limited words should be able to express several meanings. The word selection in poems should be done in a careful manner in order to ensure that every word is meaningful and unnecessary words are not used. A poet named D.H. Lawrence authored two version of a poem called Piano and the story that these poems depicted was how a female singing a song made the author think about prior memories and especially the memory of his mother. The version of the poem that was created first...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
... USB-1208FS Data Acquisition Module Experiment Number This experiment uses recorded Data Acquisition Module (DAQ). This is the first time to use Data Acquisition Module in the laboratory. Apparently, DAQ is significant in this experiment since it helps in setting up a process that enables users of the DAQ to obtain data and present it graphically. In addition, the Data Acquisition Module makes the experiment easier. However, the experiment can become complicated if the DAQ is not compatible with certain computer systems. The use of recorded DAQ relates with the aim of lab five that entails the provision of lab experience with the USB-1208FS DAQ in resistor network analysis. Additionally, the experiment will use Wheatstone bridge networks... USB-1208FS...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
...Roseau stands out amongst the world thinkers in terms of his novelty and depth to his ideas. His philosophy comes about in a relatively contrasting way to the accepted norms with regard to the social and political systems. Democracy is one of them. To provide support to his claim, his quotes the deviation of this political system from its originally intended system. It is termed as an exploitation tool towards the original goals set forth. The removal of the shortages and deviances from the democratic system would allow it becoming the most desired system once more. The large numbers of vulnerabilities that the system brings along makes Roseau term it as a flawed system of governance and thereby he has advocated the establishment of the one...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic Paraphrasing for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us