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Design: Oil and Democracy - Research Paper Example

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Compare and Contrast Research Question The article by Shambyati discusses the relationship between a rentier state and the citizens and how this mutual relationship is developed based on the noneconomic factors. Author has outlined that the rentier states in Middle East have largely relied on non-tax revenue to run State’s affairs and as such has largely remained immune from the pressures of economic groups…
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Research design: Oil and Democracy
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Design: Oil and Democracy

Download file to see previous pages... The basic premise of this article therefore is focused on the question that with the increase in wealth a country should be democratic in nature however, Middle East as a region has not developed despite increase in the wealth. There are three important research questions being discussed by the author in this article include exploring the validity of the claim that oil actually undermines the democracy followed by whether geography of the oil rich regions affect the democracy and finally author attempted to explore the casual mechanism for this relationship between the two. Theoretical Argument The major theoretical argument in Shambayati’s article is based on the assumption that the rentier states in Middle East region often rely on non-tax revenue sources. As a result of this, the overall pressure of the economic pressure groups is less. By citing the example of Iran and Turkey, Author has outlined the examples of two different countries suggesting that the legitimacy of state is derived from the cultural as well as the moral considerations in rentier states. Author has further argued that the since rentier states are dependent upon external rents for their revenue therefore creating economic legitimacy is a secondary priority of such States. It is also because of this reason that the social classes cannot be a direct challenge to the State and its apparatus and State largely remain immune from such pressures. The overall theoretical argument in Ross’s article is based on the assumption that the oil may be strong deterrent for the flourishing of democracy in any country. In order to answer the above mentioned three questions, author has explored different theoretical arguments such as rentier state, repression effect under which the richness of the resources actually allow the state to generate the funding required for internal security and lastly the growth achieved through the export led economic policies often result into lack of social and cultural change required for the development and flourishing of democracy in any country. The overall arguments therefore are based upon the lack of different factors which combine together to produce the impact which result into the lack of flourishing the democracy in such countries. Independent and Dependent Variable It may be difficult to establish the dependent and independent variables in Shambayati’s case because the author has outlined that the independent variable is the rentier state and the dependent variables are the overall interest groups and conflict between State and various social groups existing in the State. In Ross’s article the dependent variable in this article is regime whereas the independent variables are oil, minerals, Islam, OECD and Log Income. Methods of Analysis Shambayati has used a mix of qualitative as well as quantitative methods of analysis in this article. The overall approach is qualitative in nature wherein the author has adapted to case study approach of discussing the case of Iran and Turkey. Case study approach provides a comprehensive overview of the different factors leading to the autonomy of state on the external factors for the purpose of its revenue generating capability. Author has also presented some ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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