Nobody downloaded yet

Breast Cancer - Research Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Introduction Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide at present and is the leading cause of death among women (Johnston et al, 2008). Breast cancer is classified into three major groups as follows: 1) operable breast cancer, 2) locally advanced breast cancer and, 3) metastatic breast cancer (Johnston et al, 2008)…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97% of users find it useful
Breast Cancer
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Breast Cancer"

Download file to see previous pages Locally advanced breast cancer is distinguished by the application of the TNM Staging Process and is considered to be stage III where the tumor has extended to the chest wall and or the axillary nodes but has not metastasize to far organs and body cavities. Last but not the least is metastatic breast cancer or advanced breast cancer, which is distinguished by the presence of malignant or cancerous cells in the various body parts like the bone; or distant organs like the lungs or the liver (Johnston et al, 2008). Signs and Symptoms Breast cancer symptoms are mostly composed of the changes in the physical outlook of the breast marked by lumps/growths, nipple retraction or dimpling, flaky skin on the nipple area, bloody discharges from the nipple and a change in the shape or alignment of the breast. The symptoms stated may be related to other forms of illness, hence undergoing mammogram screening is the best option if breast cancer is suspected because this will show malignant cells of tumors present within the breast especially if they are small and cannot be felt by the touch of the hand even while breast self examination is done (Johnston et al, 2008). Etiology/Pathogenesis The risk of breast cancer increases with age and becomes double every ten years until a woman reaches menopause. The root cause of breast cancer is still currently undetermined, but recent studies show that the development of the disease comes from various factors, and that women who are predispose to the following aspects are more susceptible to breast cancer: 1) had early menarche (menstruation) especially those who had their first menstrual period before age twelve; 2) had their menopause at a later age than the normal; 3) gave birth at an older age (30 years old and above); 4) has a family history of breast cancer; 5) excess alcohol consumption; 6) prolonged exposure of breast tissue to radiation; 7) recent utilization of oral contraceptives; 8) had postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy; 9) obesity; and 10) mutation of the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 (Johnston et al, 2008). Diagnostic Tests After being diagnosed of breast cancer and before surgery or any other treatment is considered for the patient, an assessment which includes medical history review, mammography and histology are done extensively. The patient assessment profile is followed by biopsy and the staging process, to determine the extent or magnitude of the cancer involved. Subsequent to the results of the tests that were done; the patients will now be informed of the different treatment alternatives, making them aware of the advantage and disadvantages of each treatment poses and the risks involved in all the procedures that will be undertaken (Chan et al, 2010). Treatments The recommended medical treatment for breast cancer involves the application and combination of: surgery (mastectomy), chemotherapy plus tamoxifen. radiotherapy plus tamoxifen, neo-adjuvant therapy and systemic adjuvant chemotherapy. Prior to any form of medical treatment, doctors normally provide their patients with options on how to cure the disease. This means giving the patient appropriate information on the actual procedures involved to remove the cancer cells from the breast and other parts of the body where it metastasized. This process permits the patient to choose for herself or himself about the kind of medical treatm ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Breast Cancer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/family-consumer-science/1415399-breast-cancer
(Breast Cancer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words - 1)
https://studentshare.org/family-consumer-science/1415399-breast-cancer.
“Breast Cancer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words - 1”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/family-consumer-science/1415399-breast-cancer.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer

...? Breast cancer Contents 2. Introduction 3. Risk factors for breast cancer 3 Unchangeable risk factors for breast cancer 3.2. Changeable risk factors for breast cancer 4. Pathophysiologyof and classification of breast cancer 5. Prevention and treatment of breast cancer 6. Conclusion 7. References: 1. Abstract Breast cancer is a major cause for morbidity and mortality of women worldwide. This is condition predominantly affecting women and especially women in western countries or nations that accepted...
9 Pages(2250 words)Research Paper

Breast Cancer

...?Breast Cancer Overview Breast cancer is the more common type cancer among American women and is one of the leading causes of death in the United States (Weaver, 2007). For instance, in 2007, experts estimated placed at 240,000 people, including men, who will be victims of cancer in the United States for that year (Weaver, 2007). The treatment for cancer differs from people to people (Weaver, 2007). It is fairly common that a mastectomy may be performed when breast-conserving therapies do not work or will put the cancer patient at risk (Weaver, 2007). According to Weaver (2007), there are two types of breast cancers. One is the ductal breast cancer that takes place in ducts connecting the lobes and the nipple. Weaver (2007) said... that this...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Breast Cancer

...? BREAST CANCER Breast Cancer Breast cancer is one of the most significant cancers among the middle-aged women all over the world. Furthermore, it is also a very common case of mortality amongst women in the western areas. In England and Wales, an estimate of one in twelve women develops breast cancer in their total life span (Williams et al 2008). In United States the incidence of breast cancer in the year 1994 was recorded as 1% and it has remained significantly unchanged over the past five decades (Russo & Russo 2004). Breast...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Breast Cancer

...? Breast Cancer Breast cancer, a new form cancer, has been affecting the people of the US by a considerable extent. According to the evolution made, it is one of the foremost causes of death of women in the US. In Miami-Dade region, there has been a steady rise in the occurrence of the disease in the past 5 years. Thus, there is a need to create awareness amid people to deal with this health related menace. Identification of the Problem Breast cancer is a kind of cancer which emerges from breast tissue. The breast tissue found in the inner lining related to milk ducts or...
3 Pages(750 words)Admission/Application Essay

Breast cancer

...?Running Head: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer [Institute’s Table of Contents Table of Contents 2 INTRODUCTION 3 STAGES & TYPES 4 RISK FACTORS 5 DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT 6 CONCLUSION 7 REFERENCES 8 INTRODUCTION Since few years, cancer has become one of the most perilous diseases that have resulted in death of millions of people worldwide. There are many types of cancer. As the name indicates, cancer cells are produced in the breast part with the possibility of affecting other organs and tissues of the human body. Cells are the basic elements that create tissues in the body. Research (McPhee & Tierney, 2007, pp....
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Breast Cancer

...Breast Cancer: Research Proposal Introduction Transcription, in its simplest conceptualization is the synthesis of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) from a DNAtemplate (McClean, 1998). Whether it is prokaryotic or eukaryotic, it first undergoes the process of initiation where there is a binding of RNA polymerase to double-strand DNA; then the second process follows called elongation where there is a development of a short stretch of DNA which is mostly of a single-strand (McClean, 1998); the last stage is the termination stage where there is a recognition of the transcription termination sequence (McClean, 1998). The RNA polymerase needs other proteins in order to carry out the transcription process. Ensuring...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Breast Cancer

...Running head: BREAST CANCER SCREENING AND PHYSICAL ASSESSMENT Breast Cancer Screening and Physical Assessment / Course Date Total Number of Words: 827 Introduction The National Cancer Institute reported that approximately “182,460 women will be diagnosed with and 40,480 women will die of breast cancer in 2008. (National Cancer Institute, 2009a) Basically, the median age wherein breast cancer can be diagnosed is 61 years old whereas the median age wherein a breast cancer patient would die is 69 years of age (National...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Breast cancer

...Introduction and Overview Breast cancer is one of the leading preventable causes of death among women. Breast cancer is one of the dread diseases butimproved techniques which help in early detection had greatly reduced the number of deaths. However, approximately half a million still succumb to this disease, making it the second-leading cause of death among women after lung cancer. But it is the leading cause of cancer-related death among Australian women, with incidence rising 20% in the decade between 1996-2006 (www.breastcanceraustralia.org, n.d., p. 1). In NSW, Australia, about 1 in 10 women will develop breast...
3 Pages(750 words)Assignment

Breast Cancer

...Breast Cancer Breast cancer has emerged as a most common and highly feared malignancy among women above the age of fifty. Breast cancer is considered as the major cause of mortality due to malignancy among women aged between 40-50 years. The epidemiological studies in United States brought forward an alarmingly large number of 181,600 cases that were diagnosed of breast cancer in 1997. With the rising graph of newly diagnosed cases every year and the related high mortality incidences, education about prevention and improved therapeutic measures have also come into sight. Morphologically...
2 Pages(500 words)Research Paper

Breast Cancer

...Global Prevalence of Breast Cancer affiliation Introduction Breast Cancer refers to the cancerous cells thatform around the breast. It is a common cancer diagnosis in women especially in United States. However, it can occur in both men and women. It is a malignant tumor in the breast. Malignant tumor is part of a group of cancer cells that grow in the surrounding tissues and spreads to distant areas in the body. Most of it starts in the cells of the ducts and others in lobules and others in some tissues. These cells in the breast are abnormal and they usually multiply...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Research Paper on topic Breast Cancer for FREE!

Contact Us