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Breast Cancer Literature Review - Term Paper Example

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Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women and is one of the leading causes of cancer related death in them. Cancer in the breast arises because of several molecular alterations at the cellular level, leading to spread and outgrowth of epithelial cells of the breast with uncontrolled growth and immortal features…
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Breast Cancer Literature Review

Download file to see previous pages... All these have improved the survival rates especially in young women. In this essay, breast cancer and the role of Canadian breast cancer program in the management of breast cancer patients in Canada will be discussed. There are several types of breast cancer and the most commonly diagnosed breast cancer is infiltrating ductal carcinoma. This type of tumor accounts for more than 75 percent of breast cancer cases. It infiltrates the surrounding tissue and also metastasizes via lymphatics. There are five subtypes of ductal carcinoma and they are cribriform, papillary, comedo, solid and micropapillary. More often than not, the lesions are a combination of 2 or more subtypes. It is important to note that comedonecrosis in a breast tumor is a risk factor for development of ipsilateral breast cancer (Wright and Moros, 2009). Other types of breast cancer include infiltrating lobular carcinoma, lobular carcinoma in situ, medullary carcinoma, tubular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, metaplastic cancer, mammary Paget disease and colloid carcinoma. In lobular cancer, the cancer develops from the lobules and this occurs in about 10 percent cases (Buechler and Buechler, 2007). Histologically, the most common type of breast cancer is epithelial tumor (Wright and Moros, 2009). Other histologic types are primary lymphoma, adenocarcinoma and angiosarcoma (Buechler and Buechler, 2007). Breast cancers are asymptomatic in early stages and in several cases they are discovered during the breast screening program. Larger tumors may manifest as masses that are painless. The masses are hard, irregular and fixed to the skin. Discomfort or pain is not the initial manifestation of breast cancer. Other symptoms of lump in the breast are change in size or shape of the breast, skin dimpling, inversion of nipple, discharge from single duct, axillary lump. Symptoms which rise concerns about breast cancer are contour or lump change, ulceration, tethering of skin, dilated veins and edema. Signs of metastatic spread are bone pain, breathing difficulties, abdominal distension, jaundice, localizing neurologic signs, jaundice and altered cognitive function (Swart, 2011). Risk factors for breast cancer development are advanced age, female gender, late age of first parturition, positive family history, atypical hyperplasia lesions in the breast, hormone replacement therapy, lifestyle factors, early menarche and late menopause and genetic predisposition (Wright and Moroz, 2009). The most widely recognized risk factor for breast cancer is family history of breast carcinoma in a first-degree relative. According to Swart (2011), "the lifetime risk is up to 4 times higher if a mother and sister are affected; the risk is approximately 5 times greater in women with 2 or more first-degree relatives with breast cancer; and it is also greater among women with breast cancer in a single first-degree relative, particularly if the relative was diagnosed at an early age (50 y or younger)." There are five stages of breast cancer (Buechler and Buechler, 2007). In stage 0 the breast cancer is noninvasive in nature. The carcinoma is in situ and there is no metastases or lymph node involvement. In stage-1 the tumor size is less than ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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