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Middle Childhood - Research Paper Example

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Different Issues Related to Infancy Name: Institutional affiliation: Biological Issues Related to Infancy The biological issues that affect infancy include genetic influences, temperament, physical health, and physical attributes. These factors in some cases might be modified while in other cases they might not be modified…
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Middle Childhood
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Download file to see previous pages Prenatal as well as postnatal biological attentions of the infant dictate much the functional development of the infant’s brain as noted by Benson and Haith (2009). Structural brain development takes place mostly during the prenatal period of the infant’s growth. Biologically, the prenatal experiences of the infant are likely to affect their brain growth directly. These experiences include poor nutrition and poor maternal health. For instance, exposure to pharmacological agents at the prenatal stage may result in the infant showing symptoms of withdrawal in their behavior. The infant may also experience changes in their stress-regulating capabilities which are associated with prenatal maternal stress. Physical health effects include the care needs of the child, the caregiver’s response to the needs of the infant, the infant’s capacity for mental growth and development as well as normal physic of the infant. The temperament factors include behavioral inhibitions and their physical attributes. Both physical and temperament factors may affect the interaction between the caregivers and the infant thus affecting the caregiver’s response to the infant’s behavior. For instance the caregiver may feel disconnected from the infant, protective of him/her or even drawn to him/her. The physical as well as behavioral attributes of the infant may trigger either negative or positive interactions, or later have exacerbating interactions which are negative. In studying biological effects during infancy it is good to focus on the infant’s behavior and hormonal response. For instance, immature sensory development in infancy is associated with the infant’s social world. Immature limb systems are associated with locomotion at infancy while immature cortex is associated with the search behavior of the infant according to Freedheim (2003). Social/Cultural Issues Related to Infancy Social issues affecting infancy revolve around access to resources as well as support provided by those around the infant’s life. The environment in which the infant lives affects the infant’s needs depending on the availability, prioritization and type of resources. Lower social class leads to a probability of the infant being faced with environmental risks as noted by Benson and Haith (2009). For instance, frequent experiences with poverty negatively influence the infant development at the early stages of life. This is due to the association between psychological and environmental stress. The risks associated with this type of stress such as community violence may affect the infant’s social behavior like being rude or rough in facing life issues. Social factors associated with crowded areas, rural areas and unhealthy living situations limit the infant’s access to necessary resources for development. This is because each of these social environments is characterized with competition for available resources. In the context of child development, culture is concerned with the norms used in parenting practices and beliefs. Cultural factors impact the way the infant is taken care of and influence the role of the family in molding the infant’s behavior and beliefs. According to Benson and Haith (2009), despite the fact that there are different cultural backgrounds, there are certain cultural values which are found common across the world. These include, providing safety and good health to the infant, ensuring that the infant ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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