Diglossia - Research Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Diglossia of the Arabic Language Abstract Arabic is a diglossic language in which two literary varieties coexist as ‘pure’ forms, namely Classical Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic. The former retains its appeal mainly for religious reasons while the latter, which is closely related, functions as a global lingua franca amid the multiplicity of regional and local dialects and colloquial forms…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.8% of users find it useful
Diglossia
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Diglossia"

Download file to see previous pages Keywords: Arabic, diglossia, Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, Iraqi/Syrian dialect Arabic is among the diglossic languages of the world because two formal varieties exist in concurrent use. These varieties are Classical Arabic (CA) and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Both are referred to as al-lugha al-fusha or simply fusha for short, the latter part being pronounced as al-fuS-Ha and meaning ‘pure’ or ‘most eloquent’. Badawi however, distinguishes between al-fusha al-turath for CA and al-fusha al-‘asr for MSA (Ryding, 2005: 4). This distinction reflects the historical and cultural differences as CA pertains to Arab heritage (al-turath) and MSA pertains to the modern era (al-‘asr). Vincent Monteil (1960) thus regarded MSA as a modern development of the old classical form of CA. There are also colloquial forms and various dialects but the main distinction is drawn between the two aforementioned literary forms. Many Arabs and indeed Muslims regard CA as the pure form, as it is the form used in the Holy Quran and the form used in heaven, and therefore regard all other varieties as inferior. The syntax and morphology of CA have thus remained intact but the lexicon present in MSA is changed. This classical form is the same globally although it has few fluent speakers whereas the other varieties are distinct enough “so as to impede mutual intelligibility” (Tan, 1999: 264). Nonetheless, the spoken varieties tend to be of greater practical benefit in the present age, as shown in a study by Palmer (2008). On the other hand, MSA, which functions as a global lingua franca, is used by the media and “stirs pan-Arab nationalistic feelings in the Arab world” (Palmer, 2008: 93). Above all, it also allows for greater intelligibility of the Holy Quran from being closer to CA and is the more respected and educated variety. It functions as educated Arabic speech because it is “characterized by general intelligibility among great regional and stylistic diversity” (Mitchell, 1986). Essentially therefore, despite a multiplicity of forms and dialects, Arabic is a prime example of diglossia. The term ‘diglossia’ was first used by the Greeks to describe two different varieties of their language, namely Dhimotiki and Katharevousa. Diglossia was more recently examined by Charles Ferguson (1959) in his book ‘Diglossia’ in which three other diglossic languages were identified including Arabic. It “describes any stable linguistic situation, in which there exists a strict functional differentiation between a (socially) ‘L(ow)-variety’ and a distinct ‘H(igh)-variety’” (Bussmann, 2006: 345). The latter is differentiated from the former by being more grammatically complex, standardised and formal. Gumperz (1964) considered linguistic societies as diglossic if functionally distinct varieties were found, but did not regard them as bilingual because of their close relationship whereas Fishman (1967) related diglossia closely to bilingualism. Other scholars who have studied diglossia include Kremnitz (1987) and Willemyns & Bister (1989). As far as the various dialects of Arabic are concerned, the present day dialects can be roughly divided according to four geographical regions, which are: (1) Arabian Peninsula and the Persian Gulf, (2) Levantine, (3) ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Diglossia Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/family-consumer-science/1406833-diglossia
(Diglossia Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words)
https://studentshare.org/family-consumer-science/1406833-diglossia.
“Diglossia Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/family-consumer-science/1406833-diglossia.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
Ferguson's article Diglossia, is his prognosis for Arabic accurate today (50 years later) Is Arabic on its way to becom
...?ARABIC DIGLOSSIA Ferguson (1963) defined Diglossia as “a relatively stable language situation in which, in addition to the primary dialects of the language (which may include a standard or regional standards), there is a very different, highly codified (often grammatically more complex), superposed variety, the means of a large and respected body of written literature, either of an earlier period or in another speech community, which is learned largely by formal education and is used for most written and formal spoken purposes but is not used by any sector of the community for ordinary discussion.” . According to Ferguson, there are four clear problems involving diglossia: the form on...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Neologisms in Films and Televison
...and which, if removed from their contextual culture, would loose much of their meaning They ca do nothing about it, many claim, expect devise neologisms which carry equivalent, or comparative meaning within the matrix of the langue or culture being translated into.38 In that case, the purists sadly remark, we are doomed to live with diglossia, not language and, as they doggedly maintain, cinema and TV have killed language, as in high culture.39 Bibliography Algeo, John. "Where Do All the New Words Come From" American Speech, 55, 4 (1980). Bassnnett, Susan and Andre Lefevere. Translation, History and Culture. London: Cassekk, 1990. Bassnnett, Susan and Andre Lefevere. Constructing Cultures, Essays in...
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay
Multicultural Issues in Human Communication
...languages, each fulfilling different purposes, or the same one, is as old as language itself. According to Pei (1958), AAVE is the most widely spoken of these dialects in the United States and its use, as a tool in language instruction, will not threaten Standard English. Indeed, the use of Ebonics as a language of instruction in the transitional stage towards teaching African American students fluency in Standard English, will strengthen, and not threaten, the linguistic unity in the United States. Wolfram (1997) argues that "language varieties may be comprised of components from different languages and dialects of English; language and dialect exist on a continuum." Throughout history, societies have survived in situations of...
15 Pages(3750 words)Essay
Marketing paper
... Marketing Paper Product branding is essential in business undertakings, constituting a criticalaspect of marketing. Brand names and images that carry favorable pricing and high qualities are preferred by consumers. In marketing, consumers’ rationality cannot be ignored, since it influences buying behaviors of the consumers (Grant 128). Apple, Inc. for example is a business enterprise that accounts for consumer welfare while ensuring that the quality of its products remains highly competitive. This pursuit has enabled the company to charge high prices for its products, and still capture a significant market share locally and internationally. New product development under the brand name Apple, takes creativity, innovation and technology... Marketing...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
Describe at least five important aspects of Arabic language. Be specific
...phenomenon of diglossia, emanating from the fact that Arabs read and write one form of Arabic while at the same time speaking diverse dialects. This represents the normal utilization of two separate varieties of the same language mainly within diverse social situations. There are numerous dialects of Arabic language with the most dominant being the Egyptian, Iraqi, Levantine, Moroccan, and the Najdi within the Arabic peninsula. The dialect is shaped by the language originally spoken within the region in question. The common dialect within Arabic dialect details the Modern Arabic language, which is spoken by more than 206 million Arabic speaking people. Arabic calligraphy: Arabic calligraphy is still considered by a...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
Spoken language : describe the evolution of it from its origins to the present day
..., a nation such as France infused its language in the institutions of its government, court, literature, and religion. Contrastingly, French and English borrowed words from one another in what constituted the Norman-French collaboration. This resulted to the breakdown of language into monolingual speakers, who encompassed the peasants; bilingualism belonged to the middle classes while mono-lingual for the members of the aristocracy (Hogg, R. 2002, 90). In Diglossia, language is subdivided into high and low varieties. High variety mainly entails news media, speeches or lectures while low variety is the backbone of most spoken language especially with conversations with friends and family members. This caused the flow of...
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay
Learning New Languages: A Guide to Second Language Acquisition Book
...the language of the minority group (Spolsky 58). Apart from the diversity of languages, there is also a unique aspect of language referred to as diglossia. It refers to the connection of the language contacts to a functional location such as in the case of the native and the classical Arabic language (Spolsky 63). Spolsky Ch7 The chapter explains how language can be used to influence and access power through language policy and planning. For instance, in the region where there are two languages, the decision to make one language and to ban the other is done through what the chapter refers as status planning (Spolsky 66). Once a language has been picked as the national language, the effort to restructure it in order to...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
Bilingualism and diglossia
...Bilingualism and Diglossia al Affiliation (DRAFT #2) This essay focuses on the issue of diglossia within the contextof its relation to bilingualism. The main point of discussion within the framework of the article will dwell on how diglossia applies to closely related varieties used in the same society, where one or a couple of literary standard languages prevail over the rest language varieties that are being widely used to communicate. In the course of a comprehensive analysis of different aspects of diglossia as an intricate linguistic phenomenon, which is usually categorized as a kind of bilingualism, I will look closely at classic and extended...
8 Pages(2000 words)Assignment
Discuss with examples the sociolinguistic notions of linguistic heterogeneity and linguistic homogeneity in the speech community
...as variationist sociolinguistics, a speech community is a group of people who share the same language norms that do not depend on social context changes.1 However, it is important to understand that the dependence of a language on social processes can be manifested in a set of different language subsystems (i.e. forms of existence and functioning of a specific language), bilingualism or diglossia, availability or nonexistence of a written language, language policy, etc. These are important but not exclusive manifestations of the connection between a language and conditions of its functioning. Lexicon, grammatical structure and the evolution of linguistic styles exert a substantial influence upon the use of language...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
Community education project ,
.... Journal of Research in Reading, 25(3), 299-309. Allen, R. (2007). Arabic - flavor of the moment: Whence, why, and how? Modern Language Journal, 91(2), 258-261. Al-Sobh, M. A., Abu-Melhim, A-R.,& Bani-Hani, N. A. (2015). Diglossia as a Result of Language Variation in Arabic: Possible Solutions in Light of Language Planning. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 6 (2), 274-279.Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.17507/jltr.0602.05 Amor, M. & Riadh bed Maad, M. (2013). The role of Arabic Orthographic literacy in the phonological awareness of Tunisian children.International Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications, 4(2), 15-24. Retrieved from...
15 Pages(3750 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Research Paper on topic Diglossia for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us