Evidence-Based Practice Project
15 pages (3750 words)
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... End stage renal disease (ESRD) or End stage renal failure (ESRF) is a condition that is caused by any number of underlying diseases, including hypertension, diabetes and glomerulonephritis. (Sonnier, 2000, p. 5). In 2006, 506,256 individuals in the United States and 107,825 individuals in the United Kingdom suffered from ESRF. (Wong et al., 2009, p. 2). ESRD and ESRF iare diagnoses that are made when an individual loses 85% to 90% of kidney function, which means that the kidneys cannot remove toxins and waste from the blood, so 60% of patients with ESRD and ESRF end up on dialysis for survival. When a patient is on dialysis, circulation of the blood is on one side of a semipermeable membrane,...