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ENVIRONMENT POLICIES COURSE: LECTURER: 1. The Montreal Protocol. The Montreal Protocol is a treaty signed by interested parties to protect the ozone layer. The protocol hopes to phase out emission of substances that can be thought of to be responsible for depletion of the ozone layer…
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Download file to see previous pages The members who got into the treaty hope to achieve a complete recovery of the ozone layer by the year 2050 (Benedick, 2007). c. Number of participants and the reasons for the level of participation. The protocol has managed to attract international co-operation exceptionally due to the widespread implementation as well as adoption of the treaty. The treaty has been ratified as perhaps one of the most successful agreements of international scale to date. The treaties that fall under the Montreal Protocol have successfully been ratified by the European Union as well as 197 other states. This therefore makes the protocol alongside the two ozone treaties involved the most ratified of all the treaties in United Nations history. Other participants in the treaty include the Cook Islands, Holy See alongside Niue. The protocol has its proceedings in major languages so that no one fells left out. The languages are French, English, Spanish, Russian, Chinese and Arabic. This is one of the major factors that contributed to the fact that many participants were attracted to the protocol. The other reason for such level of participation is the common goal that drives the desire to protect the earth from losing the all important ozone layer. The countries that went into the treaty, the latest entrants being South Sudan, all had the common purpose to work towards eliminating harmful substances and controlling emission of such substances that can greatly affect the ozone layer (Chasek, 2013). d. Compare the success of the Montreal Protocol to that of the Kyoto Protocol and address the reasons for any differences in terms of National Interests of those that elected to participate and those that have not. The differences witnessed between Kyoto protocol and the Montreal protocol is that the one in Montreal imposed on all countries strict restrictions from the start. That mostly differs from the mode of operation of the Kyoto protocol. The other difference that can be observed in the two protocols is that strong incentives were created by the Montreal protocol with regards to participation and compliance if a country is to be part of the main agenda. Montreal also created a positive feedback system whereby each step aimed at reducing the depletion of the ozone layer as well as creating incentives whereby each country would feel involved in the process of decision making in regards to taking steps forward. This effort in the long run provided the participating countries with an avenue to place their trust on the efforts of fellow states and hence national interests in the Montreal protocol turned up to be higher than that of the Kyoto protocol (Dotto, 2006) 2. United Nations Conventions on the Law of the Sea. a. The issue of “Property Rights” as it relates to UNCOLS. This treaty arose from the third conference held by the United Nations that took place right between the years 1973 and 1982. The laws in this treaty tend to define responsibilities of countries on how they utilize the resources from the sea as well as the oceans of the world. The treaty laid basic guidelines for environmental conservation, conducting business alongside good use of marine resources found naturally. UNCLOS came into effect in the year 1994 after signing Guyana a year earlier. By October of 2012, the treaty enjoyed the company of 164 nations alongside the European Union. The UN is ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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