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Policy and Governance in Sustainable Systems - Term Paper Example

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Policy and governance in sustainable system Name: Instructor: Task: Date: Policy and governance in sustainable system “What are some of the problems of democracy? How does this affect environmental policy?” The freedom guaranteed by our democracy seems to open ways to attacks upon a country’s sanctity or security…
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Download file to see previous pages Instead, they end up electing the leaders who use the governments’ money to come up with projects that use a large amount of government’s money in order to, please people. This results into huge deficits in a country. Democratic participation in the making and enforcement of policies is very common in many countries. It is true that democracy affects environmental policies stringency positively, but only if the country has a history of democratic rule and the country is less corrupt. The positive effects of democracy are linked with the citizens’ ability to give information concerning the environmental destruction and the ability to protest against it. Because of democracy, there has been an augmentation in environmental commitment, in states. For instance, democracy has influence the signing off Multilateral Environmental Agreements, which is a sign of environmental commitment (Pellegrini 2011). “What is the tragedy of the commons and what are some of the ways to mitigate it? What are some of the conditions that enable self-organization to alleviate the tragedy?” Tragedy of the commons is the problems caused by individuals’ collective actions. It results when resources in the community has no private ownerships and are owned by the entire community. Since the resources that are owned by the community, no one cares to use them responsibly, and this leads to their depletion. Example of the tragedy of he commons is overfishing from a lake that is not owned by a specific person in the community, or cutting trees from a community forest. The problem can be mitigated if the whole community comes together to restrict the harvesting of the resources. The problems can also be mitigated in a country if the governments set regulations or taxes. Self-organization can alleviate the tragedy of the commons if it creates a system of give and receive, which can sustain a high level of cooperation to generate new canons of reciprocity. Moreover, the self-organization should create group identity especially in the institutions that are self-governed, so that a player can discuss the problems related to the tragedy freely (Gunderson, 2002). “How does splitting types of goods and services by levels of exclusivity and subtractability help us to understand governance systems better? Explain the various types of goods and the relevant institutional arrangements for effective governance”. Public and private goods are in opposition because of the difficulties in excluding access to and low substractability of public goods, and the corresponding ease of exclusivity and high substractability of the private goods. Splitting the goods in such levels help us to understand the governance system better since they make is easier for one to understand how and why particular systems of resource governance and property regime develop as they do. The types of goods that exist are the private goods and the public goods. The public cannot use the private goods; however, the public can use them under certain conditions. The public goods have no specific ownership, and that can result to the Tragedy of the Commons. The nature of goods depends on its exclusivity and substractability. The private rights refer to the clear specification, security and exclusivity of the right, which the right holder alone is entitled to. The public or private nature of a resource defines the representational claims of the body. A public body represents the general ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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