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Water pollution - Research Paper Example

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Water pollution has turned out to be a global threat that significantly affects the existence of humans,animals and plant.Water pollution is contamination of water ecosystems such as rivers,ground waters,oceans and lakes.It occurs through direct or indirect discharge of pollutants into water bodies without proper treatment…
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Download file to see previous pages Water pollution has turned out to be a global threat that significantly affects the existence of humans,animals and plant.Water pollution is contamination of water ecosystems such as rivers,ground waters,oceans and lakes.It occurs through direct or indirect discharge of pollutants into water bodies without proper treatment. Polluted water is the main causes of human infections and deaths through waterborne diseases such as diarrhea and typhoid fever. This portfolio report seeks to give detailed investigations on leading causes of water pollution and efforts being made to control water pollution. There are various factors that contribute to the problems of water pollution namely, Industrial waste, sewage, acid rain and surface runoff. There are not many techniques of controlling this pollution and currently many researches are being carried out with the aim of finding helpful solution to these problems. The first major causes of water pollution include industrial waste and sewage that are discarded into water bodies. Most of these industrial and sewage waste contains chemicals some of which reacts with water forming toxic substances. These toxic substances are very harmful for both aquatic organisms and human beings when consumed. As the wastes, decay it uses up oxygen and this can affect most of aquatic organisms since they depend on the oxygen in water to survive. Large accumulation of these wastes into the river blocks of waterways other clogs on the vital organs such as fish gills making it impossible for them to breathe thus causing death. Chemicals from these wastes also find their ways in the bodies of a human being when the water is used for irrigation and it contaminate plants and transmit infection to farm employees and consumers (Agarwal, 2005). A solution to this kind of water pollution would be frequent cleaning of affected rivers and carrying out water quality testing to determine the level of oxygen and different chemicals present in water. This can be done through analyses of water samples in the laboratory for both physical and chemical properties. Industries should also refrain from discharging their waste into rivers. Currently, many industries are using ion exchange technology to remove magnesium and calcium that causes water hardness. Ion exchange can process a wide range of chemicals and provide selective recovery. It consists of columns filled with resin beads that provide a large surface are for anion and cation sites. During the exchange, anionic resins exchange hydroxyl ions for negatively charged chlorides, chromates and sulfates. Cationic resins exchange hydrogen ions (H+) for positively charged ions such as cadmium, nickel, sodium and copper. This technology has helped in removing most toxic chemicals from water thus reducing water pollution (Rao, 2006). Another cause of water pollution is acid rain. It results from burning of fossil fuels having a high level of sulfur. Burning oil and petrol from industries and heavy commercial vehicles releases carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere. After combining with water droplets in the atmosphere they results to formation of weak solutions of nitric and sulfuric acids. When this solution undergoes precipitation they fall as acid rain. As this acidic rain falls into water bodies, it is weakened but as time goes, it increases and eventually lowers the Ph of water. This increases the acidity levels of water bodies and destroys aquatic life. It also increases the acidity levels of soils, which can kill plants because it interferes with soil nutrients. Introduction of low sulfur diesels has helped in reducing the level of carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide released during combustion. Invention of selective catalytic reduction technology which uses ad blue solution has also helped in reducing emissions from heavy vehicles. Ad blue is a solution of urea in water and is mostly used in diesel engines of heavy trucks. The ad blue solution helps ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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