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Toxic Substances Control Act, United States - Research Paper Example

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The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been given the authority through the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to detect and identify potentially hazardous products and utilization of existing and latest chemicals by the U.S. manufacturers…
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Toxic Substances Control Act, United States
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Download file to see previous pages While the enactment of codified environmental acts with TSCA has brought certain advantages in reducing health risks and negative impact to the environment in general through the course of history since the 1970s, its scope and limitations are perceived to necessitate evaluation measures that suit current demands. History Originally proposed in 1971 by the President’s Council on Environmental Quality, federal legislation for TSCA arrived at a report on ‘Toxic Substances’, detailing a defined need for comprehensive legislation in identifying and controlling chemicals whose production, processing, distribution, application, as well as disposal may pose serious threat to humans and environment alike, especially since environmental statutes back then were lacking adequate regulations. . In 1972 and the following year, bills for the 92nd and 93rd Congresses were passed by the House and the Senate respectively when certain issues rose regarding the scope of tests performed, economic consequence, and efficiency in comparison to other regulatory laws. TSCA was approved and officialized into law under the regime of President Ford as the latter signed for its approval on October 11, 1976, under which EPA was granted jurisdiction to address reported episodes of environmental contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of Hudson River and other waterways, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions toward gradual stratospheric ozone depletion, and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) with agricultural impact. Estimating optimum levels of costs imposed upon TSCA implementation as well as related provisions inventory and hazard notifications were also required for EPA to maintain besides pertinent screening procedures and control of existing industrially used toxic chemicals. Major amendments to the TSCA initially comprised in a single title included Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act under Public Law Number 99-519 (Title II) in 1986 which enabled EPA to set standards for asbestos mitigation in schools, requiring asbestos contractors to be trained and certified as well. Radon Program Development Act in 1988 followed by Radon Measurement two years later, as stated in P.L. 100-551 (Title III) and P.L. 101-508 correspondingly contained directions for EPA to provide technical assistance to states that opt to support monitoring and control of radon. Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Reauthorization Act under P.L. 101-637 moreover was enacted in 1999 whereas the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992 through P.L. 102-550 (Title IV) was sought to be carried out in providing assistance leading to abatement of lead-based paint hazards. Through Title V, similarly, environmental concerns at schools along with energy efficiency were dealt with by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 within P.L. 110-140 while Title I was further amended in terms of sales restrictions for elementary mercury in 2008 being authorized by Mercury Export Ban Act under P.L. 110-414. TSCA Coverage / Content One chief objective of TSCA was to enable producers to develop test data, directing EPA to require such on existing chemicals in case – (1) the manufacture, processing, distribution, use, or disposal of the chemical ‘may present an unreasonable risk’ or (2) when the chemical is produced in substantial quantity by volume, posing the threat of being released to the environment in equivalent or proportional amount which entails a range of measureable impact upon a populace of high biodiversity. Since there were more than ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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