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Trace the evolution of management principle from the Classical School to the present Compare/contrast and relate one or mor - Essay Example

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EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES 3 Introduction 3 Pre-Scientific management school 3 Classical Management Era 4 Neo Classical Management Era 5 Modern management Era 6 Contingency Theory 7 Comparative Analysis for Current working Environment 7 A General Comparison of the four schools of management 8 Conclusion 9 References: 10 EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES Introduction The verb manage comes from the Italian maneggiare meaning 'to handle'…
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Download file to see previous pages 1. Pre scientific management era (before 1880) 2. Classical management era (1880-1930) 3. Neo classical management Era (1930-1950) 4. Modern management era (1950 onwards) Pre-Scientific management school Difficulties arise in tracing the history of management; some see it as a late modern conceptualization while others believe it has been present for millennia. Chanakya’s ‘Arthashastra' writeen in India in around 300 BC describes various strategies, techniques and management theories. Chinese general Sun Tzu’s 'The Art of war' (6th Century B.C), is a military strategy book which recommends us to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of the two warring factions. Niccolo Machiavelli wrote 'the Prince' in 1513 in which the city of Florence, Italy is advised that leaders use fear and not hatred to maintain control. Church and military contributed to his school of management thought (pediaview). Management ideas were also developed in China, Greek and Roman empires in the Middle Ages. Venice which was known for its fighting and production facilities has been found to have used assembly line techniques to outfit battle ships to go to wars during the 15th Century. There was a facility in which ten ships could be completely outfitted and sent to sea within a few hours. The early autocratic period of management is characterized by the use of strategies like fear of punishment and fear of God; absolute authority, coercion and force. Figure 1: Evolution of Management Principles Classical Management Era Efficiency and productivity became a critical concern of the managers at the turn of the 20th Century. Labour was in short supply and the solution lied in using labour more efficiently. Adam Smith wrote 'The wealth of Nations' in 1776 which aims for efficient organization of work through specialization of labour. He described how changes in processes could boost productivity in the manufacture of pins. While individuals could produce 200 pins per day, with 10 specialists the production was 48,000 pins per day! F.W. Taylor's scientific management theory states that if the amount of time and effort that each worker expends to produce a unit of output can be reduced by increasing specialization and division of labour; the production process will become more efficient (Montana & Charnov, 2008). Ford achieved the right mix of worker task specialization. Franklin motor company redesigned the work process using the scientific management principles and production increased from 100 cars a month to 45 cars a day. Administrative management theory is the study of how to create an organizational structure that leads to high efficiency and effectiveness. Max Weber (1864-1920) developed the principles of bureaucracy-a formal system of organization design. Henry Fayol (1841 to 1925) underlined 14 principles of management which are (Aquinas, 2005) 1. Division of Labour 2. Authority and Responsibility 3. Unity of Command 4. Line of authority 5. Centralization 6. Unity of Direction 7. Equity 8. Order 9. Initiative 10. Discipline 11. Remuneration of personnel 12. Stability of tenure of personnel 13. Subordination of individual interest to common interest 14. Esprit de corps Promotion of team spirit. Neo Classical Managem ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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