Biological/ Genetic model (Alcohol and Drug addiction Modality) - Term Paper Example

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Biological/ Genetic model: Alcohol and Drug addiction Modality Biological/ Genetic model: Alcohol and Drug addiction Modality Alcohol and drug addiction are causing major problems in families and societies in many countries. No country seems to be free from the curse of alcohol and drug addiction…
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Biological/ Genetic model (Alcohol and Drug addiction Modality)
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Download file to see previous pages The fact is that both environment and genetics can play an important role in the making of a person as drug or alcohol addict. In other words, it is difficult to standardize treatment options for alcohol and drug addiction because of the varying factors which cause this problem among different people. Modalities like Family therapy, Psychoanalytic approaches, cognitive behavioral therapy modality, group therapy etc are some of the common therapies used in the treatment of alcohol or drug addiction. No single therapy is found to be effective in the treatment of addiction because of the differences in the causes of addiction. This paper analyses the biological or genetic influence with respect to alcohol or drug addiction. Biological causes of substance abuse include a possible hereditary predisposition, especially for alcoholism. As research progresses, there also is evidence that use of chemical substances may actually alter brain chemistry. With habitual substance abuse, natural chemicals may no longer be produced in the brain, resulting in dependency on alcohol or other drugs to avoid discomfort (Causes of Addiction and Modalities for Treatment, n. d) The structure and chemistry of brain is important in determining the behavior of a person. Fortunately or unfortunately, the physical and psychological characteristics of a person are transferred to his children. For example, the development of Central nervous system and endocrine system are heavily dependent on the genetic factors. Central nervous system contributes to the development of neurotransmitters whereas endocrine system is responsible for producing some specific hormones which control many of the physical and mental processes. In other words, these systems are primarily responsible for controlling human behavior. Moreover, “they have major roles in perception, cognition, and expression. But more importantly, they regulate and determine moods, emotions and motivations”(Deans, 1997). In short, the influence of genetic elements can be visible in the behavior of drug or alcohol addicts. The alcohol preference may be related to the ability of alcohol to compensate for the abnormality. The nature of this abnormality is unknown but may be due to one or more of the following factors: decreased dopamine synthesis, a lower number of dopamine neurofibers, and/or reduced functional activity of dopamine neurons (Biological Components of Substance Abuse and Addiction, 1993, p.46) Dopamine has the characteristics of a neurotransmitter and a hormone. As a hormone it is responsible to prevent the release of prolactin from pituitary. Prolactin level should be regulated in the body since it can affect many of the physical and mental functions of body. For example, increased sex energy and appetite for some specific food and beverages are the contributions of prolactin hormone. Dopamine can affect the brain’s reward system. Dopamine deficiency can trigger the thirst for alcoholism. The children of alcoholic parents may have low levels of dopamine which may generate thoughts of non-recognition. Such children are in search of recognition and the first taste of alcohol may change the whole course of their life. Any problems occurred to the dopamine may affect the prolactin regulation in the body. Alcohol and drugs can affect the structure and functions of dopamine and prolactin which will be transferred to the offspring. Beta ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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