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Methodology - Term Paper Example

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Academia Test Order#: 534702 Bernhard Bierlich, Ph.D. 05.17.11 Completed: 23:00 Methodology: Emotions, Consciousness and the Self [ ‘ ‘CONTENTS Introduction The research process Thesis and hypothesis Results: Sartre, 1985, pp. 56-91 Conclusion References Introduction This analysis explores the nature and origin of human emotions of anger, revenge, hatred, shame, sadness, etc…
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Download file to see previous pages The aim of this analysis is to assess Sartre’s theory of the emotions and how he, in his arguments, follows general scientific standards and the use of (appropriate) methods for the enquiry. As a core requirement in the presentation of an argument any scientific work has to begin by introducing the topic chosen in terms of a “research question” and a “hypothesis” (a “preliminary”, i.e. ahead of the actual research, answer to the question). One then has to proceed by clearly stating the aim of the research and how one wants to “explore the problem” by comparing one or the other “literary source and concept”. Importantly, one also has to define the topic by qualifying it and the literature in terms of a particular set of “methods” to be used and deemed appropriate, be they person-oriented and qualitative, or of a more quantitative nature, or a mix of the two groups. At this stage, follows the “results-section”, an analysis and discussion of the data collected. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are made, and one also notes in which sense one’s study has tested the research question (Ellen, 1984). ‘ The Research Process Research, the search for knowledge and problem-solving, is a process whereby one continually adds to knowledge (Ellen, 1984). By this understanding, research is an ongoing process. There are, however, certain procedures to be followed and standards to be adhered to, be they of an “inductive” (experimental: “arriving at a theory based on facts”) or “deductive” (“facts are organized to match theory”) nature. Based on this division, one arrives at a “positivistic” and “relativistic stance”, resulting in a contrast of “explanation” (deduction, positivism, quantification) and “understanding” (induction, relativism, qualification) (Alexander, 1983; Gellner, 1985)1. Thesis and hypothesis In his Sketch For A Theory Of The Emotions Sartre proposes a social and interactionist perspective by stressing the concept of “the social basis of emotions and the self”. His approach is inductive and grounded in arguments and examples to prove his thesis. His work is, he contends (and the present author tends to agree), an important critique of the “classic” literature on the constitution of emotions, consciousness and mind represented by such philosophers-psychologists as William James and Pierre Janet. Their focus is on the “individual” and his/her “consciousness”/”mind” as an analytical point of departure, an entity that exist a priori to one’s argument (Sartre, 1985, pp. 32 ff.)2. Opposed to this – and very revealing in terms of his empirical theory of emotions that are grounded in various fields of interaction with the social world (e.g., Mead, 1950) - Sartre states: “ It [consciousness] arises as a relation of our psychic being and the world; and this relation –or rather our awareness of it – is not a chaotic relationship between the self and the universe, it is an organized and describable structure” (Sartre, 1985, p. 34) In the latter words, “organized and describable”, lie his procedure of proving his hypothesis regarding the social ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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