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Charrington’s shop; fantasizing that if Katherine were to die, this would allow him to marry Julia. He considers how he would alter his identity and begins confiding in Julia to a greater and greater degree. At the same time Julia is represented to confide in Winston more and more; even relating that she believes the Party enemies to be inventions created by the party as a means of gaining further control. Shocked by this revelation, Winston scolds Julia and labels her a “rebel”. This section of the book also describes the first meeting between O’Brien and Winston; with O’Brien offering to allow Winston to visit him in his home. Although Winston recognizes this as a unique opportunity, he is also haunted by the realization that this will lead him down something of a pre-ordained path; one that is inclusive of his eventual execution at the Ministry of Love. Ultimately, this entire section of the novel represents a transitional period in the life of Winston; one in which Julia comes to serve as the center of his thoughts prior to his meeting with O’Brien and the changes that his portends for all characters involved.
It is within Part III of the novel that the themes of torture and fear come to be recognized as commanding primal attention. As the section begins, Winston finds himself in confinement; sharing a cell with a woman he does not know and faced with the continual threat of being dragged away for further questioning. Winston lives in continual fear that this questioning will cause him to give up Julia and subject her to the tortures that the Party has contrived. Winston perpetually worries about Room 101; a place in which unspeakable acts of cruelty and torture are carried out. This causes an interesting development in the psyche and approach to rebellion that Winston has thus far referenced. Rather than seeing himself as the outsider that is cautious of the “rebels”, Winston instead recognizes that he now has the onus of
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This practice has been long established especially in times of war and in some countries during election. Propaganda is used today as it was in the past. However, it has taken many turns in that it is now used in elections (politics) in many countries all over the world to convince the electorate to vote as well as in advertising products.
Definition of torture offered by the United Nations Convention Against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT) is, by far the most comprehensive and widely used definition. The definition also mentions several ways and reasons for which people may be tortured.
Victims of torture may be told that no one remembers them or cares, and that if they survive, no one will believe them. The psychological aspects of torture may range from the seeming inevitability of a fixed routine (e.g., the dread of interrogation and physical torture at set times each day) to an inability to anticipate what will happen next.
But it is also a logic that has been used to justify spying without a warrant, mass detentions, incarceration without trial, and abusive interrogation. In each case, we are told, some safeguards and rights that were formerly regarded as civil liberties have to be given up in the interests of security.
Furthermore, propaganda can only an interactive way to achieve certain purposes. As a result, propaganda is defined as a systematic way to influence certain behaviors, attitudes for attaining the desired response (Jowett and O’Donnell, 1999) Historically as well as currently, propaganda is associated with enemy talking lie (Marlin, 2002).
Correspondingly, it’s increasingly becoming a focus of the public debate. Being considered of crucial importance to both the very existence of liberal states and societies and regard for liberal values, the torture issue has divided the academia, the judiciary and the public opinion as well.
The images associated to propaganda found in this course highlight some of the instances of practice of propaganda. This images include, the image displayed in the third lesson about the young imitating Hitler’s steps and actions, what the Chinese postage stamp implicated in relation to propaganda and finally, the jobs.
In post-9/11 America, the controversial topic of torture has become a significant ethical issue that has created much debate. On one side of this national issue are those who believe that torture is necessary and justifiable to safeguard the lives of innocent people.
The studies, which consider torture as high forms of human rights violations, are rare. Torture has come into being the most prominent form of human rights violation through the organised violence caused by both democratic and non-democratic governments from around the world, following the incidents of 9/11.
In most cases, people disseminate information without facts. Politicians have used it as a political tool that convinces masses. Propaganda also serves the interest of the senders of the message. According to Jowett, Garth & Victoria (51), propaganda creates
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