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Weight measurements will be taken, and these can be compared with results from the literature about what is healthy and normal for the particular breed of dog. Secondly, energy levels will be measured, again based upon what is normal for the breed. This will be subjective and assessed by trainers who do not know which diet the puppies are taken, to make sure there is no bias. Finally, blood pressure measurements will be taken weekly throughout the course of the experiment to ensure that the puppies are healthy and to avoid ethical problems of the experiment.
Another important part of designing a scientific experiment is to work out the participants, or the ‘sample’. Scientific studies work best with larger sample sizes to eliminate bias (Shannon & Kockler, 2009). When working with dogs, it can be beneficial to use a variety of breeds to ensure that the hypothesis and results can be applied to all dogs. Therefore it was decided that 100 dogs would be tested, 50 on each diet. 25 different breeds (or combination of breeds in mongrels) will be used, so that 2 of each breed will be taking part in each diet group.
It is important to randomize the dogs that are chosen to go on each diet. Grouping each breed as a four and then randomly assigning them a diet is the best way of doing this (Shannon & Kockler, 2009). It is important that each one follows the diet strictly for the four weeks of the experiment, as any deviation from this could cause a false result. This means the dogs must be observed at all times to ensure that they do not eat any food from another dog’s meal. Each dog must also have the same amount of exercise and be housed in the same size kennel as the other dogs from that breed to ensure fairness when measuring the results. Differences in exercise could cause a major difference in the weight measurement particularly, and this would be a confounding variable.
Each dog would also have to take their meals at
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There are set of a principle that governs the behavior of medical practitioners. The principles are essential in ensuring that medical practitioners work at the required limits. According to Thomas McCormick, the principles are there to ensure that a medical practitioner does not inflict pain or harm to a patient.
Infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and several neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) like lymphatic filariasis, hookworm infection, and ascariasis are spread through personal contact, water and air contamination, or vectors that are prevalent mostly in developing countries (U.
Examples of ethics include: national ethics, family ethics, social, ethics, professional ethics and company ethics. Morals and ethics can be viewed as different in the following dimensions: First, morals describe individual character, while ethics emphasizes a social system whereby morals are applied.
This variance is because of the varying life experiences of individuals. Therefore, a person’s life experience is important, as this shapes their values and perceptions about life. The environment in which a person grows up, as well as the family they are raised in, are other important factors, which shape and develop an individual’s set of values.
R.M. Hare, an Oxford philosopher, proposed universal prescriptivism according to which the distinctive property of ethical judgments is that they are universalizable. This universal prescriptivism results in the form of consequentialism, claiming that the rightness of an action actually depends upon its consequences.
Xenotransplantation, on the other hand, implies “transplantation of animal organs or tissues into humans” (Silberglitt, 2006, p.221). This article analyzes the justification of the use of Xenotransplantation, keeping in mind the principles of Bioethics, using theory as well as statistical analysis and survey.
article entitled “Establishing an Analytical Framework in Law and Bioethics for Nurses Engaged in the Provision of Palliative Sedation” to address the ethical and legal issues that nurses need to understand and to draw a clear distinction between palliative sedation,
tic conditions that have been mentioned (dehydration, dyspnea, possible kidney failure, serious weight loss and the multiple bruises on her body) are related to Alzheimer’s diseases, as mentioned by the caregiver.
The need to carry out independent diagnosis is underpinned by
Generally, scientific research work is overseen by individual, community and social values just as almost all of the human activities; where its ethics lie on requirements on daily work, the protection of dignity of subjects and
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