New Ways in English for Specific Purposes is the second volume that Peter Master and Donna Brinton have edited in TESOL's New Ways series, the other being New Ways in Content-Based Instruction (Brinton & Master, 1997). After the birth of English for specific purposes (ESP) in the 1960s, this discipline has become quite well known, especially because English has acquired the status of an international lingua franca in almost any field of study, and linguists have moved toward a contextualized notion of language…
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The first studies on special languages were in fact those on register, which developed in a Firthian environment. Following strictly in Halliday's footsteps (Halliday, 1978), British linguists identified special registers on the basis of lexical aspects, which they considered sufficient in themselves to distinguish them from common language. For example, the presence of a lexical item such as tablespoonful was enough to presume that the register was that of recipes or prescriptions (Halliday, McIntosh & Strevens, 1964; Strevens, 1977). However, as recent approaches to special languages have pointed out, differences do not apply to the lexical level only, but also concern morph syntactic choices and textual and pragmatic organization (Swales, 1990; Gotti, 1991; Bhatia, 1993). The social context (and therefore the aim) of each of the subdivisions of ESP exerts a strong influence on the linguistic strategies which are to be adopted. Therefore situational and functional requirements direct linguistic choices such as lexical density, the complexity and the length of clause structure, the degree of formality and the management of information, to name but a few.
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cate a set of professional skills and to perform English and are learning the language in order to communicate a set of professional skills and to perform particular job-related functions. An ESP program is therefore built on an assessment of purposes and needs and the functions for which English is required.
ESP concentrates more on language in context than on teaching grammar and language structures. It covers subjects varying from accounting or computer science to tourism and business management. The ESP focal point is that English is not taught as a subject separated from the students' real world (or wishes); instead, it is integrated into a subject matter area important to the learners.
However, ESL and ESP diverge not only in the nature of the learner, but also in the aim of instruction. In fact, as a general rule, while in ESL all four language skills; listening, reading, speaking, and writing, are stressed equally, in ESP it is a needs analysis that determines which language skills are most needed by the students, and the syllabus is designed accordingly. An ESP program, might, for example, emphasize the development of reading skills in students who are preparing for graduate work in business administration; or it might promote the development of spoken skills in students who are studying English in order to become tourist guides.
As a matter of fact, ESP combines subject matter and English language teaching. Such a combination is highly motivating because students are able to apply what they learn in their English classes to their main field of study, whether it be accounting, business management, economics, computer science or tourism. Being able to use the vocabulary and structures that they learn in a meaningful context reinforces what is taught and
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However, English is required for various environments with different terms, approaches to communication and relationship building among individuals. A specialized segment which requires English speaking to take place at a different level is when working with business.
The needs of this particular group of students are related to a certain level of English that hey require (average) and unique vocabulary that they need to know as per their specialization request.
The group targeted for this program is a standard university group consisting of 25-30 students.
The history of intelligence testing reveals crude beginnings with limited application, progresses through the development of additional instrumentation with both specialized versions and more specific purposes, and lands at the contemporary proliferation of options for both testing and theoretically grasping intelligence in all of its forms.
earning is encouraged in many countries especially in non-native English speaking countries, in order to improve communication skills and to exploit the global employment potentials. Globalization and Liberalization policies implemented by majority of the countries have
nglish as their official language, English is widely recognised as the lingua franca of the business world due to its broad business-related terminologies (Dudley-Evans & St. John, 1998, p. 5). Because of the ever intensifying forces of globalisation, the value of communication
ESP is not a monolithic universal phenomenon. Nevertheless, it has developed at different rates in different countries and we will describe all approaches in the world presently. The summary; therefore, will have a general focus. However, one area, English
It is evidently clear from the discussion that the rhetorical devices utilized by the author clearly depicts that people are overwhelmed by fear of missing out despite the fact that there are ways of breaking free. Therefore, the article has managed to appeal to the target audience in a more profound and effective manner.
Considering an academic setting where an asymmetrical relation of power exists, the teacher holding power and the students being subordinate despite their active role, the researcher observes that native
Therefore, the model will enable other researchers to understand the variations of Arabic introductions, and the effects of their organizations towards the establishment of hybrid rhetorical structures (Fakhri, 2004). The second article, “Research article introductions in English for specific purposes: A comparison between Brazilian Portuguese and English” highlights on the salient organizations of rhetorical presentations concerning the Brazilian and Portuguese learning English studies with immense correlations with Applied Linguistics.
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