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Human genetic enhancement - Essay Example

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Human Genetic Enhancement Name Institution’s Name Introduction Genetic enhancement refers to the transfer of genetic material intended to modify nonpathologial human traits. When the aim is enhancement, the gene may supplement the functioning of normal genes or may be imitated by the genes that have been engineered to produce a desired enhancement…
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Human genetic enhancement
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Download file to see previous pages Gene insertion may be intended to affect a single individual through somatic cell modification, or it may target the Gametes, in which case the resulting effect could be passed on to generations. The concept of genetic enhancement is not new if one considers the use of genetically modified drug products such as Human Growth Hormone (HGH), which before 1985 could only be obtained in limited quantities from cadaveric pituitary glands but now can be produced using recombinant DNA technology (Stock, 2003). When its supply was limited HGH could only be prescribed to children with short stature caused by classical growth hormone deficiency however with the advent of recombinant DNA manufacturing some physicians are recommending use of HGH for nonhormone deficient children who are below normal height. After reports were heard of a pregnancy achieved through Human cloning program a bill was set up by the Senate that would outlaw all forms of cloning including biometric research aimed at creating embryonic stem cells that would not be rejected when transplanted, simply known as therapeutic cloning, and the bill had the support of then president George W. Bush. Any embryonic researcher was threatened with extreme criminal penalties (10 years in jail). An executive order on March 9, 2009 with its main aim of removing barriers to responsible scientific research involving human stem cell was introduced and it highlighted the advances over the past decade in the research field was very promising and would support it with federal funds. The order was to remove all forms of limitations on scientific inquiry expand NIH support on human stem cell research and enhance American scientist's contribution in new discoveries enhance the reputation for the fact that the U.S.A houses the most powerful biometric research facility in the world. There are issues regarding human genetic modifications and they bring up major questions like what extent is permitted by law, the risk involved, and availability of research benefits to people from all walks of life, use of animal model with the aim of human application. Gene transfer at an embryonic stage through a technique called pronuclear micro injections is being tested in animals but based on the experiments it suggests that embryo gene transfer is unsafe and its use results in random integration of the donor DNA, a lack of control of the number of gene copies inserted,rearrangement of host genetic material and the process was necessarily followed by nuclear transfer of enucleated oocytes led to low birth rate and a very high rate of late pregnancy loss or newborn death thus making gene transfer at the embryonic stage for enhancement would reach far beyond the means of acceptable medical intervention (Stock, 2003). But scientists have crossed that line, they have been able to change the DNA in a human egg and might easily ignore the goal which is prevent rare but horrible disorders in babies, caused by defects in the DNA that only passed down from a mother to a kid. Human genetic enhancement is a controversial topic and to make sense of this requires ethical reflection between Therapy and Enhancement. Both proponents and critics of bioenhancemet have argued that the line between therapy and enhancement is very thin. Therapy includes medical interventions that restore human functioning to species typical norms. One example of human genetic ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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