Orcas in Captivity: Cognition and Behavior.
Orca is the noun which has properly been assigned to killer whales. Orcas are being kept in captivity for more than half century, only for blatantly commercial experimentations. …
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These artificial environments for orcas are comprised of social grouping and captive orcas are being forced to adapt in such social groupings which does not comprehend any conformity to the natural habitat and setting of orcas. This fact is seemingly unknown to the common people who, collectively, spend a significant amount of money each year to witness the show which trained orcas are forced to present. These common people are being motivated and fascinated by extravagant commitments of the display industry which has promoted the commercial captivity of orcas in artificial environments (Eaton 447-450). The major argument which the display industry proposes to justify the captivity of orcas in artificial environments for commercial purpose is that the artificial environment is secured and controlled in which the vulnerability of orcas is being reduced if compared to the natural environment. However, several experiences and studies have explored that the artificial settings for orcas and the forceful trainings, which the display industry do to captive orcas, have no resemblance with the nature of orcas (Greenwood and Taylor 10-12). Regarding this significant issue of captive orcas, this paper is aimed to describe the impact of commercial captivity on the cognitive development of orcas and impacts on its behaviors. In addition, this paper will also present the explication of natural cognition and behavior of orca in the natural setting in contrast with the artificial environment. Lastly, it will also describe the commercial captivity of orcas and reasons for its monetary success in an explicatory manner. Description of Orca Orcas are one of those sea creatures which cannot be easily found while exploring the wild to witness or acquire the understanding about its behavior and life. Although it has been known that orcas are present in every ocean of tis world; however, its biological, behavioral and cognitive knowledge has not appropriately been acquired by humans. There are two major reasons for this in which the first reason is that orcas live and spend a large amount of time in the deep water. The second and more significant reason for limited knowledge regarding the lives of orcas is that these sea creatures are being considered as, and orcas factually are, brutal attackers and ruthless predators. This reputation of orcas as the bloodthirsty and life threatening creatures has contributed substantially for the limitedness in the acquisition of details about the lives of orcas in wild (Whitehead and Glass 183-185). As the little details which have been associated with the description of orcas has been described, several high ranking marine professionals have proposed orcas as the destroyer which destructs everything it witnesses in its living zone. Moreover, orcas have also been pronounced as the killer for which US Navy manual directs individuals and officers to kill the killer on sight before it actualize and delivers its ruthless and life taking behavior (Nolan, Liddle and Elliot 659-662). However, the whole fascination and fear regarding orcas have been congealed in the decade preceding 1970’s when the first orca was being kept in captivity for commercial purposes. This captivity of orcas motivated governmental agencies of several countries to utilize the assistance of well recognized biologists to explore the life details about orcas. Biologists acquired the appropriate utility of advanced technologies like, fingerprinting techniques, not only to get the accurate population of orcas, but also to learn significant details about
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This term has similar meaning with the word socialization that mostly has been used by sociologists. Cultural anthropology is a sub-field of anthropology that studies society’s culture and how culture is transmitted from one generation to another. People or individuals belong to communities that have cultures which in essence prescribe individuals expected behavior and conduct in the society.
Category learning or concept learning is a comparison by which a learner compares group or categories that contain concept-relevant features with those that do not contain concept-relevant features. This field in psychology basically defines the learning procedure through which a human or a machine is trained to classify objects or situations based on a set of examples and scenarios.
It is concerned with these processes even when they operate in the absence of relevant stimulation, as in images and hallucinations” (Josephs, 2011). Cognitive psychology on the other hand is defined as “the branch of psychology devoted to the scientific study of the mind” (Braisby and Gellatly, nd, pg.
As these components of the aforementioned systems are agreed upon by a particular group of people, then it means that language is conventional and, since it uses the voice, then it uses vocal signs. The purpose of language is also clear from the above definition: for human beings to communicate.
Babylonian Exile, commonly referred to as Babylonian Captivity, is known for causing the forceful detention of the Jews in Babylonians after conquest of the Judah kingdom in 598/7, as well as in 587/6 BC (Michael 24). As history indicates, the exile ended in 538 bc, and it is the period in which the Persian conqueror of the Babylonians (Cyrus Great) allowed the Jews to return back to Palestine.
Thereafter the dissertation goes into the methods to be utilised to assess the efficiency and discusses them in some detail. It explains how factor analysis can assess how the items in the questionnaire are positioned in relation to the three factors - components of metamemory, acquisition, retention and retrieval - and in relation to each other.
Cannabis Sativa is a widely abused drug across the globe with its effects associated with reduced cognitive abilities. The substance has the ability to impair one’s memory due to the intoxicants present in the drug.
As an employee myself, it was likewise usual to experience aberration and difficult times when looking for a parking space outside the store. Oftentimes, if not always, I would have to wander around for 10 to 15 minutes in
The documentary has prompted the state of California to introduce laws banning orca shows at SeaWorld (Martinez, 2014). In as much as several benefits arise from capturing orcas, the act is wrong.
Corporate greed and
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