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Lispector allowed the reader to be a part of the text in stating in the beginning of the chapter that: “And within the mist there was something precious. Which do not extend itself, did not compromise itself nor contaminate itself. Which was intense like a jewel. Herself” (102). Another textual example in the chapter is when Lispector described the reality after the character passed through her imaginative scenes. She described it as: “When suddenly everything became unimportant and more rapid and light, where her face revealed freckles, her hair fell over her eyes, and where she was treated like a boy” (105). The character disappeared, and the reader became a part of the text as the character’s environment became real again. Lastly, the presence of the reader appeared as she “dressed hastily and downed her coffee in one gulp. She opened the front door. And then she no longer hurried” (107). This is a manifestation of the duality of silence in Lispector’s work, which is a character of a postmodernist literary artist. This dual structure is a character of her fiction that adds tension to the texts while creating the contextual silence on her works (Fitz 421). In relation to playwrights, postmodernism can be defined as the manner of standing out from the current rules. In this manner, the playwright, along with the artist, works without following the rules because they create the rules while creating the piece per se (Counsell and Wolf 55). It deviates from the usual realism and is considered as an important part of the pre-World War II plays that manifest metaplays. With this on hand, one of the best examples of postmodernist play is the Endgame written by Samuel Beckett. According to Keshavarz, as a postmodernist play, the characters in the Endgame represent a natural form of sadness (140). He presents a modern status of a person who fears and leans on a goddess with bitterness, doubt and indifference. On the other hand, it represents the modernity of a selfless person who lacks the stability of his identity but still manifests social awareness. On the part of the audience, Beckett deviates the ideas and views of the audience from the formal work of dram and injecting postmodernism by bringing the audience in the middle of reality and real-play. He believes in the notion of metatheater that the world is a stage. In this manner, the audiences become characters of the play while experiencing the experience of the characters that they have chosen to be. It can be inferred that postmodernism, in the light of the Endgame, tries to eliminate the potential characters of modernism that alienates reality from theater, or vice versa. Therefore, the Endgame eliminates the rules of basic drama and theater and allows rebuilds it in a manner that the play can be grasp juxtaposition with life itself. The postmodernism manner in the Endgame can also be considered as a literary strategy by Beckett by destroying the irony of a parody (Keshavaraz 140-142; Rahimipoor and Edoyan 102). In the light of television shows, one of the most popular and long-running postmodern shows is The Simpsons. One of the most explicit characteristics of
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Sherman Alexie has extensively explored postmodernism in his narrative ‘Do not gentle’. It is relatively hard to define the word postmodernism when used independently. The definition can differ from culture to culture, society to society, or even race to race.
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