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English on Ethics - Essay Example

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The ethical principles and theories that govern our lives and bind our actions to moral and ethical consequences are categorized as the Utilitarian, Rights and Justice Ethics. In the paper that follows, these principles are discussed and then weighed in the context of literature by renowned authors. …
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English Essay on Ethics
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"English on Ethics"

Download file to see previous pages The Rights Ethics, on the other hand, is based on Immanuel Kant’s Categorical Imperative that states that every individual’s right to freedom should be respected and that all individuals ought to be treated equally. According to him, each individual has a moral right to this and that this moral right of individuals translates into duties for other individuals. The first foundation of this imperative is based on the principles of “universibility” and reversibility. Thus, individuals must ask themselves how they would feel if other treated them the same way and how would they feel if everyone did the same. Thus, according to Kant, the immoral decisions and actions were those that one wouldn’t want for oneself. The second imperative states that individuals ought not to be treated merely as means; that is, their capacity to choose freely for themselves must also be developed. This clearly demonstrates that while the Utilitarians imply an ‘economically rational’ justification for actions, Rights Ethics correctly captures the human values and goes beyond the traditional cost-benefit analysis. Thus, according to Utilitarians, individuals could be deprived of their right to liberty simply because the net benefit isn’t maximized. Hence, Rights Ethics takes a step forward by respecting not only the positive but also the negative rights of individuals. Thus, the Rights Ethics many of the flaws associated with the Utilitarian view. Firstly, the utilitarian view simplistically assumes that all the consequences of an action can be quantitatively measured(Smart and Williams). This is not always the case. For instance, how could one assign a value to one’s life? Secondly, it deals insufficiently with rights, morals and justice(Smart and Williams). Rawl’s theory explains the principles of distributive justice by arguing that people in the original position would prefer the principles of justice, which includes equal liberty, equal opportunity and difference principle(Poel and Royakkers). Thus, Rawls theory succeeds because it preserves the fundamental human and moral values. Furthermore, it supports the market system and the employment of minorities and disabled by ensuring equality of opportunities (Poel and Royakkers). Thus, this theory goes further beyond the Rights Ethics and can be viewed as an extension of the Rights Ethics theory because it condemns the immoral activities of bribery, nepotism, corruption. It goes beyond the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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