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Circumcision in the United States - Research Paper Example

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Running head: CIRCUMCISION IN THE UNITED STATES Circumcision in the United States University: Abstract Circumcision in males is shown to have numerous benefits some being the reduction in the risk of acquiring diseases and infections. There is however controversy in regards to its importance on the wellbeing of a newborn as opposed to that of an adult…
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Circumcision in the United States
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Download file to see previous pages All the reasons summed up result to a conclusion that circumcision is a normal practice that should take root in the American culture. Circumcision in the United States Circumcision is a procedure known and practiced by millions of people across the globe. It is the removal of a penis’ foreskin in males or removing of clitoris or labia minora in females. However, this paper relates to male circumcision. In the United States majority of males are circumcised and they form about 85 percent which is a figure derived from states like California, Texas and Georgia among others. It is important to note that the rate of newborn circumcision has increased by 12.8 percent according to Schoen (2007). Many men are also being circumcised at later stages in life owing to personal, medical or religious reasons. Circumcision in actual sense has more benefits than risks and should be a normal and required practice in the United States. Reasons for circumcision As stated above men or male children are circumcised based on three main reasons namely: religion or culture, medical reasons and personal reasons. Religion or culture It is the norm in many cultures for male children to be circumcised after being born. In others circumcision takes place at the onset of puberty. Jews and Muslims are the notable groups of people who uphold strict circumcision traditions based on religion and culture. Circumcision that is carried out at puberty mostly acts as a rite of passage from childhood to adulthood especially in many African cultures. Christians on the other hand are divided on whether to take circumcision as a norm or let an individual decide. Catholic Church for example presently holds a neutral ground in as far as medical reasons are concerned. Medical reasons Medical side to circumcision holds a great deal of controversy with experts staging conclusions from both ends i.e. some favoring the practice while others refuting it on medical grounds. Schoen, Wiswell and Moses (2000) state that American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) for example, claimed back in 1971 that it was hard to prove validity of circumcision of newborns. They also termed it as a non-essential for the newborns’ well-being. Contrastingly, studies by Wiswell et al. showed that newborns are 10-20 times protected from Urinary Tract Infections through circumcision. In addition, AAP in 1999 provided a list of six benefits and one risk i.e. surgical mishap which was also indicated to be rare at 0.2 percent. Some of the benefits include reduced chances of acquiring HIV, UIT, penile and cervical cancers and Chlamydia among others (Castellsague, Peeling, & Franceschi et al. 2005). In general, medical benefits of circumcision far outweigh the risks involved in both children and adults. The first major benefit is the reduced chances of contracting certain diseases and infections for example the UTI and HIV (Zorc, Levine & Platt, 2005). A circumcised man is also less likely to result to cervical cancer in women. It is also less likely for one to contract syphilis. It is also 3 times less likely for a circumcised man to carry human papilloma virus. It is therefore empirically true that circumcision has more benefits than it has risks and as such it should be encouraged at national level. Personal experiences (under personal reasons) I know of two boys who were circumcised at birth. My nephew was forced to undergo circumcision due to medical ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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