Chapter 4 4.0 Results and Discussion There are very good reasons for using metacognitive, cognitive and socio-affective strategies to improve listening skills. Metacognitive, cognitive and communicative strategies affect learning both directly and indirectly (Rubin 1987)…
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The study was two-fold. One aspect looked at the differences in the frequency with which low proficiency language learners’ use various types of metacognitive, cognitive and socio-affective strategies as well as the overall frequency level for each category in general. The other aspect of the study looked at differences in the frequency with which the female and male gender used the same set of strategies. The overall results indicate a medium level of frequency in the utilisation of listening strategies for each major category of strategies for both high proficiency and low proficiency language learners. A similar result was obtained for the frequency with which males and females used these strategies. There were some differences within each category with the cognitive strategies category and the socio-affective strategies category showing wider variations in the level of frequency used by both low proficiency and high proficiency language learners as well as between the strategies. There was also some variation within each category in terms of the frequency with which males and females used each strategy with the cognitive strategies category showing a wider level of variation in terms of the different levels of frequencies between the strategies and between males and females. ...
However, the high proficiency group used metacognitive strategies and cognitive strategies at a higher level of frequency based on the mean frequency scores, than the low proficiency group. In the case of socio-affective strategies, the low proficiency group used these strategies at a higher level of frequency than the high proficiency group. Table 4.1 provides a statistical description of the three main categories of listening strategies used by high proficiency and low proficiency groups. 4.1.1 Differences in the three main categories The results indicate that there were no major differences in terms of the frequency with which each category of strategies were used. Each of the strategies was used with medium frequency. Table 4.1 shows the three main categories of listening strategies used; the groups – high and low proficiency; the number of participants in each group; the mean scores of each group (M); the standard deviation (SD); and the frequency with which each category of strategies was used. Table 4.1 – Statistical Description of the 3 Main Categories of Listening Strategy Used by High and Low Proficiency Groups Category of strategies Group N M SD Frequency Metacognitive strategies High 10 3.24 0.78 Medium Low 10 3.15 0.62 Medium Cognitive strategies High 10 3.18 0.72 Medium Low 10 3.03 0.42 Medium Socio-affective strategies High 10 2.75 0.78 Medium Low 10 2.84 0.55 Medium Total strategies High 10 3.12 0.78 Medium Low 10 3.04 0.57 Medium N: participant's number M: mean SD: Standard Deviation Frequency: how frequently strategies were used Table 4.1 indicates the frequency with which the ten participants in the high and low proficiency groups used each of three listening strategies. Using a frequency of high, medium and low which is
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