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Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering - Coursework Example

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Fluid flow through pipes generates friction that tends to lower the head of the flowing fluid. The loss of head may simply be measured by utilizing two manometers. However, if a detailed description of the total frictional loss is to be obtained then other measurements are necessary. …
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Download file to see previous pages The flow through the pipe could either be laminar or turbulent and so the experiment will be directed to distinguishing the kind of flow. Flow should be started through the pipe being investigated. The pipe must have manometers installed on both ends of the region being investigated. The diameter of the pipe must be measured beforehand. The discharged fluid should be collected in an appropriate container that can aid volume measurement. A stop watch should be used to monitor the total time required for a certain volume to flow. Starting with an empty container, the fluid should be allowed to flow through the pipe into the container. The experiment should be timed sufficiently to read the manometers on both ends. The flow should be stopped when enough volume of fluid has been collected in the container for measurement. The time required for the total flow should be noted along with the total volume of fluid collected. These values will be used to generate the flow rate. The readings on the manometers will be used to generate the total head loss value. At least ten distinct experiments must be carried out by varying the flow rate inside the pipe. Using the measurements above in the formula the Reynold’s number can be calculated as:
R_e=ρud/μ
And velocity as:
u=4Q/(πd^2 )
The velocity should be plotted against the head loss. If the head loss is proportional to the velocity then the flow is laminar while if the head loss if exponentially related to the velocity then the flow is turbulent. The Reynold’s number will confirm this investigation.
The flow through the pipe could either be laminar or turbulent and so the experiment will be directed to distinguishing the kind of flow. Flow should be started through the pipe being investigated. The pipe must have manometers installed on both ends of the region being investigated. The diameter of the pipe must be measured beforehand. The discharged fluid should be collected in an appropriate container that can aid volume measurement. A stop watch should be used to monitor the total time required for a certain volume to flow. Starting with an empty container, the fluid should be allowed to flow through the pipe into the container. The experiment should be timed sufficiently to read the manometers on both ends. The flow should be stopped when enough volume of fluid has been collected in the container for measurement. The time required for the total flow should be noted along with the total volume of fluid collected. These values will be used to generate the flow rate. The readings on the manometers will be used to generate the total head loss value. At least ten distinct experiments must be carried out by varying the flow rate inside the pipe. Using the measurements above in the formula the Reynold’s number can be calculated as:
R_e=ρud/μ
And velocity as:
u=4Q/(πd^2 )
The velocity should be plotted against the head loss. If the head loss is proportional to the velocity then the flow is laminar while if the head loss if exponentially related to the velocity then the flow is turbulent....
These strains may easily be measured using strain gauges. However, the empirical readouts from the strain gauges cannot be used directly at all because the values need to be calibrated first. The first step would be to determine the incremental loads that must be applied to the structure in question and also the maximum applicable load. The structural member that has been utilized to create the pin framework structure must be used to calibrate the strain gauge. A straight piece of the concerned structural member should be loaded incrementally following the pattern of loading outline above. Corresponding values of strain must be tabulated accordingly including the value of strain at no loading. Next the framework under investigation should be loaded using the same increments of load up to the maximum applicable load. The values of strain for the structural members of the framework should be noted off the strain gauges. The total set of readings must include the values for strain at no loading. The values of the calibration structural member should be utilized to calculate the calibration factor(s) for the strain produced versus applied load. Next the strain values of the actual framework being tested should be tabulated using the calibration factor(s) from above. The values of strain versus load can then be plotted for the framework in question. These plots can then be utilized to interpolate the loading values for given values of strain for any applied load. This experiment is based on the assumption that the loading of structural members lies within elastic limits and that the pins used to do not display excessive play or rigidity but are free to ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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