Nobody downloaded yet

Increasing or restricting Andragogy - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
There have been so many diverse definitions proposed by leading educationists and philosophers in the twentieth century in relation to adult education,that it is extremely important to isolate the sense in which the term 'adult education' will be applied in this study…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER95.5% of users find it useful
Increasing or restricting Andragogy
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Increasing or restricting Andragogy"

Download file to see previous pages First, there is the problem within the nomenclature itself, problematized by both the terms 'adult' and 'education' that constitute it. Secondly, there is the problem of dissociating the term from within a matrix of related, but at more fundamental level, different terms like 'continuous education' and 'andragogy'. What really adds to our problem in this respect is the fact that we have to approach this problem at a time when an unprecedented complexity within the social formation itself has rendered educational institutes and education, both in definition and practice, complex. Therefore, we have to take into account both the objective semantics of the term as well as try and locate it within a specific twentieth century educational context.The term 'adult education' is a comparatively new one, coined much after it was actually in practice. It is a result of many years of evolutions, and its meaning, even now is far from simple and monolithic. Even as early as in 1927, Hall-Quest conceded the difficulties in defining the term. One of the biggest problems related to the definition of 'adult education' is, whether it refers to a set of methodologies by which 'adults' can be taught, or is it a holistic term that includes the general endeavor of educating adults in a specific way as well as a detailed study of government adaptation and subsequent implementation of policies that target the adults specifically as the subject of educational instruction. Theorists like Alan Rogers have defined adult education as a process 'whereby anyone over 16 (or whatever) are treated as adults - capable, experienced, responsible and balanced people'. Such a definition has two major problems; first 'adult education' becomes synonymous with 'andragogy' thus affecting the semantic rigor of the term. Secondly, values like capability, experience and responsibility are more often than not terms defined by culture and there is no platform or parameter that is universally agreed upon, which makes the term can lacking in ethnographic rigor.

It is therefore, important that we first clear the ethnographic tangle and then go on to arrive at a working definition of the term. Who is an 'adult' It is probably the first major question we have to answer before we get into any further exposition of the term. An adult can be defined in respect to age: affixing a cut-off age as in legal and administrative procedures. However, in all streams of study and human discipline this parameter is the least applied. There are various methods of measuring adulthood, which are not concrete and yet central to an understanding of the phenomena, across the world which can often differ, and at times even oppose one another. Adulthood, in the West, is often associated with the ideas of independence, to have one's own principles and perceptions on life and the ability to live up to it. It is integrally connected to question of self-sufficiency and living on one's own term - which by corollary, means an ability to satisfy one's own desires. In a number of Oriental cultures, Japan for example, this itself can be a mark of juvenile world-view and immaturity, because in that culture it is the ability to submerge one's own desires and to sacrifice them is what is counted as a true adult behavior. These dichotomies immediately place any ethnographic approach towards defining the term on slippery and problematic ground. Similarly there is little agreement ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Increasing or restricting Andragogy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/education/1514467-increasing-or-restricting-andragogy
(Increasing or Restricting Andragogy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 Words)
https://studentshare.org/education/1514467-increasing-or-restricting-andragogy.
“Increasing or Restricting Andragogy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/education/1514467-increasing-or-restricting-andragogy.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Increasing or restricting Andragogy

Increasing Your Personal Effectiveness

...Increasing Your Personal Effectiveness In the world, different people have different habits that define their social standing. Indeed, scholars argue that habits are the defining factors of humans. In psychology, habits refer to the routine behaviors repeated regularly and often occur subconsciously. Experts and other researchers reiterate that habitual behavior occurs unnoticed to the individual displaying it, as the individual does not necessarily need to engage in self-assessment and analysis when performing routine tasks. Essentially, a habit may be good or bad. Interestingly, every person has a particular habit he or she would like to change or improve uponi. This reflection paper focuses on the seven habits of...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

Andragogy

...?Running Head: ADULT LEARNING Adult Learning: The Concept of Andragogy Adult Learning: The Concept of Andragogy Introduction One ofthe aspects of learning that is recognized by educators is that children learn at different rates according to their age and that adults learn differently than children. Malcolm Knowles defined four assumptions that were increased to six assumptions about the motivations that adults require to learn. The revolution of seeing that adults learn differently than children provided context for looking at the motivation for adult learning. Just as importantly, defining what makes an individual an adult has meaning when determining how they will perform when trying...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper

Andragogy and Pedagogy

...and situation. They have a point here. Therefore, pedagogy and andragogy need not be taught separately but can be taught as a mix of these two, depending upon the situation. There need not be a distinct teaching with just transmission of knowledge alone or facilitation alone but a mix or continuum of the two. That would make for a proper teaching that is situational, depending on the needs of the learner. Works Cited "Individualizing instruction." Moving from Pedagogy to Andragogy. (Adapted and Updated from Hiemstra, R., & Sisco, B.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.1990. Cross, K. Patricia. Adults as Learners: Increasing Participation and Facilitating Learning. ISBN-10: 1555424457....
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

Increasing or Restricting Andragogy

..., different terms like ‘continuous education’ and ‘andragogy’. What really adds to our problem in this respect is the fact that we have to approach this problem at a time when an unprecedented complexity within the social formation itself has rendered educational institutes and education, both in definition and practice, complex. Therefore, we have to take into account both the objective semantics of the term as well as try and locate it within a specific twentieth century educational context. Definition of Adult Education The term ‘adult education’ is a comparatively new one, coined much after it was actually in practice. It is a result of many years of evolutions, and its meaning, even now is far from simple and...
13 Pages(3250 words)Essay

Gambling and Increasing crime

...that they drive themselves into. The politicians and those higher up the ladder are able to get some rules bent and coerce others to drop the charges. Gambling can and does grab hold of anyone and everyone and crime will result either way. Increasing crime resultant of gambling is another issue which, with the data available, cannot be ascertained. On the other hand the legalization of gambling will help to build a strong economic growth in an area where the business can be legalized and attract customers. Crime can be lowered, as some argue, with some stringent restrictions being put into place and crime that does result from the organizations can be looked over as long as the money being exchanged is...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

Adult Learning Theory: Andragogy

...of the theory, the concept of Andragogy has been severely criticized by various authors and researchers, over the years. The critics have disregarded and questioned the assumption put forward by Knowles regarding the ability of adults to learn independently, and the portrayal of adults as independent self-directed and self-motivated learners as compared to children. They argued that learning is a result of an individuals personal and social environment, and the experiences gained by them differ greatly in accordance with their circumstances. Although, it was suggested by Knowles that the definition of Andragogy is not restricted to adults alone and that the concept of pedagogy can also...
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper

ANDRAGOGY

...Applying Andragogy in Multi-Disciplined Learning and Teaching The article chosen for review is, “Applying Andragogy in Multi-Disciplined Learning and Teaching” (Chan 25). It is written by Sang Chan in the Journal of Adult Education. The author presents a synthesis of research which has elaborated the utilization of Knowles’ Andragogy in various disciplines. Andragogical principles are needed in most educational disciplines. This review seeks to elaborate the application of andragogical principles in various educational disciplines and the importance. Andragogy is defined as the science and art of helping adults to learn. It has a long history of evolution and...
2 Pages(500 words)Article

Andragogy

...Running Head: ADULT LEARNING Adult Learning: The Concept of Andragogy Name Class Date Adult Learning: The Concept of Andragogy Introduction One of the aspects of learning that is recognized by educators is that children learn at different rates according to their age and that adults learn differently than children. Malcolm Knowles defined four assumptions that were increased to six assumptions about the motivations that adults require to learn. The revolution of seeing that adults learn differently than children provided context for looking at the motivation for adult learning. Just as importantly, defining what makes an individual an adult has meaning when determining how they will perform when trying to learn. The seven steps... to...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper

Restricting Free Speech

...Restricting Free Speech Freedom of speech or rather freedom of expression is the political right to communicate one’s ideas or opinions. While freedom of speech is used synonymously with freedom of expression, the latter includes all acts of seeking, receiving or imparting ideas or information, regardless of the medium use. In this case, it may entail the use of newspapers, the internet, radio, televisions, fliers, and so on. In most cases, governments restrict, with varying limitations, how citizens may express themselves. Some of the most common limitations of speech may be related to obscenity, right to privacy, slander, libel, sedition, pornography, fighting words, hate speech, incitement, copyright...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Andragogy

...Andragogy Andragogy The learning process needs to be centered on the learner. The learners, on the other hand, need toassume the primary role of the learning process through a self-directed process. In the thought of Knowles, Holton & Swanson (2005), adult learners can become self-directed in the event that they are provided with the appropriate facilities, experiences, resources and are encouraged to learn. In the case of the adult learners, Merriam, Caffarella & Baumgartner (2007) indicate that the educators have no alternative, but to use resources that will help the adult learners master the concepts taught in class. Through andragogy, Knowles, Holton & Swanson (2005) indicate that...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Increasing or restricting Andragogy for FREE!

Contact Us