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CBI eliminates the artificial separation placed between language and subject matter in most education settings (Brinton, Snow & Wesche, 1989). It is characterized by socially, historically and culturally situated practices (Kern, 2000), using dialogues, graphic signs, paralinguistic behavior and other semiotic systems as text.
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Content-based language teaching is expected to produce self-directed/autonomous learners and motivated students capable of critical thinking (Snow, 2001). The contents that are integrated into language study are subject matter and authentic text, and the subject matters may include literature, economics, mathematics, journalism, sociology, political science, art history and filmmaking (Byron, 2006). Content-based ESL instruction is much needed in Korea, where globalization is catching on but where the ESL system is rooted in rote memorization (Cho & Krashen, 2001). The type of topics ideal for the CBI teaching of English depends on the students' needs and interests. In adopting CBI, there is no need to discard the existing ESL syllabus aimed at developing the student's language skills. All the school needs to do is introduce the CBI concept to enrich the method. CBI is noted for its flexibility such that it can be adapted to any ESL settings and curricula. Methodology The study used the qualitative approach to research through the primary data collection tools of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with Korean teachers and students in ESL classes. Such interviews are semi-structured if the triangulation method is employed, which is done by checking out the consistency of data obtained from the interviews with those found in the available literature. The references used for this purpose are led by Mohan (1986), Kramsch (2002), Mohan (1986) and Brinton, et al. (1989) for those making a case for CBI in general, and Cho & Krashen (2001), Li (1998), Sook (2002) and Lee (2002) for those focusing on the specific need of Korea for content-based language instruction. For... This paper has demonstrated how multi-lingual collaboration in a socio-linguistics course creates an active atmosphere where the discussion and negotiation of content-based meaning or collaborative dialogue in communities of learners have been evaluated as being motivating to the students. It is argued here that such interaction is necessary in the teaching of socio-linguistics, firstly, as the subject-matter in the syllabus is best enhanced by student experiences and perspectives, and secondly, since it raises and sustains the general level of comprehension for potentially challenging themes. The evaluative framework has also contributed to this motivation, since it is based on active participation in this process rather than accuracy alone. This methodologically hybrid approach to teaching and learning is argued, in this case, as being a direct influence from the language-sensitivity and group-work orientation in the EFL training and experiences of the instructor. Future courses must, however, take into consideration the academic culture shock of the demands on students of the interactive lecture which requires students to adopt a student-centered, collaborative learning mode.
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...? Translation in advertisements The world today is composed of different people who speak differentlanguages and who have embraced different cultures. Different people that speak different languages have also embraced different living standards and different customs all in all. Thus, that which is applicable or acceptable in one culture may not be acceptable in another. It is here that the query of advertisements comes in. Most advertisements have been generalized in nature, with most of them being given in just one single language and not considering the meaning when translated. Though advertisements do not take into consideration this matter, it indeed affects their effectiveness because; it determines how useful... Translation in...
...?Assignment One: The following scenario includes a room in a nation of origin with adults who are learning to speak English. When someone studies English in England or in the United States, it is easier to develop an understanding of the language. In this case, the students are studying in their homeland so conversational English is not as readily available. A lesson that would allow students the opportunity to learn how to speak a second language is to pair the students with those at the same level of conversation then instruct them to engage in conversation for fifteen minutes in order to make a discovery about the other person. Each level of learning would have a different level of discovery that they need to make. At the end...
The more experienced person become good in critiquing and the more person know about the research, the more detailed he/she will do his/her analysis.
When a person starting critiquing, he/she will simply need some basic guidelines to follow and to make their data collection successful and effective. Ethnicity and age are two variables that are known to be quite considerable predictors of academic achievement among nursing students. The restricted particular area in nursing shortage has increased that push to diversify, resulting in more mature-age students and students from diverse ethnic and cultural groups in nursing programmes.
There is increasing pressure for nursing students to participate in part-time employme...
...A pre-referral is a way of collecting information about a child that may help the team decide if a official Referral to Special Education is or may not yet be appropriate at the current time in the student's education lifetime. This meeting can include samples of class work, student behavior, and any other useful information.
The process is most often done at a meeting in school with involved teachers, but parents can also be involved in the process as well. The purpose of this team of teachers is to analyze how the student is doing and to discuss any concerns they may have about the student's educational needs. After all the information is looked at, discussed, weighted, and analyzed, the team then decides what the best thing...
It is interesting to delve into finding out the factors which contribute to the academic performance of migrants’ children, specifically Korean Americans. Adolescents from today’s generation have grown with relatively antithetical thinking and preferences compared to generations that their grandparents and parents were accustomed to. Likewise, academic performance, attitudes, and behaviors of previous generations were influenced by traditional and conventional norms. The methods of teaching, as well as the instructional materials available during those times, provide limited or more constrained opportunities for access to a broader knowledge base. The impact of advances in technology in the past decades has drastically...
...1. Participants Choong-hoon (Male, 30) – Single Language school part time worker at a bar. 2) Hye-mi (Female, 29) – Single
Part time worker at a jewelry store.
3) Jung-yeon (Female, 29) – This is me. Single
4) Jun-ho (Male, 28) – Single
City college student
5) Jun-gil (Male, 28) – Married.
LaGuardia Student, part time worker at a bar,
6) Hye-jung (Female, 27) – Single
Culinary school student
We had a Sam-kyeop-sal party at Jun-ho’s home. Sam-kyeop-sal is Korean-style pork belly. Choong-hoon brought his coworker, Jun-gil, to the party and introduced him to us...
... the preposition of to complete the sentence.
The apostles could not choose from the two. The adjectival phrase the two succeeds the preposition from to complete the sentence.
In a different wavelength, Winston Churchill’s sentence: This is something up with which I will not put is wrong because it splits the to-infinitive. Prepositions are always combined with verbs to form the to-infinitive. Therefore, splitting the to-infinitive may make understanding the sentence difficult because it ignores the short-dependency that the to-infinitive put-up should have.
Lyons, John. Introductions to Theories of Linguistics. Cambridge: CUP.... A closer look at newspaper articles, blog sites, web pages and even news anchorage reveals that ...
...Correlation between ESLstudents
Background information 2
Millennial Learners 3
Demand for highly qualified teachers in world/foreign language in Russian, Chinese and Arabic speaking countries by the United States Department of States is very high. This implies that existing instructional gaps between ESL and grades students get in IELTS (Elder & O’Loughlin, 2003). The need to build U.S. language was identified as the way forward in not only bridging instructional gaps but also enhancing economic growth of the country. To achieve such demands by millennial learners, many learning institutions in the U.S...
International students face more challenges than local students. Most of the ESL students, if not all, feel a sense of helplessness due to the lack of proficiency in the English language. Most ELS students come to the United States with some knowledge of the English language but not the culture or the college life. For international students that come to the United States after completing high school, it is especially difficult since the academic structure of colleges and universities is completely different than high school. ESL students are given strict deadlines and significantly higher standards compared to high school standards. Something must be done to accommodate international students if the assertion that the transfer le...
Therefore, the use of the English language in oral communication must be given as much attention that is necessary especially among English as a second language (ESL) learners. Therefore, the use of the English language in oral communication must be given as much attention that is necessary especially among English as a second language (ESL) learners. Being able to communicate proficiently in using the English language had become a measure of an ESL student’s communicative competence. As the dominant form of communication in one’s daily interaction, oral communication – in the form of conversation – a person is able to demonstrate his skill and ability to participate actively and appropriately in grou...
... constructs the identity of the writer. The writer needs to be conscious of this and strive to reveal the identity that is intended. The writer chooses language that initiates the type of relationship desired with the reader.
According to Ivanic and Simpson, using the pronoun I in writing makes the writer more responsible for their ideas and sets the stage for the writer to assert personal, original ideas. After seeing the words I used in a text, readers are able to trust the writer that the ideas put forward have actually been thought about.
Ivanic and Simpson characterize the roles of everyone involved in the process of a student undertaking a writing assignment. First, there is the instructor assigning the writing assignment...
Several recommendations for action are made. In 1993, Harold Stevenson followed up his 1993 study of achievement among U.S., Japanese, and Taiwanese children (Stevenson et al., 1996). He found that U.S. fifth- and eleventh-graders (first- and fifth-graders in the original study) ranked below Japanese and Chinese students in both math and reading. When the top 10 percent of students were compared in terms of math, U.S. students were still a full standard deviation below the Asian mean. Data also were gathered in 1993 to judge such things as parental and child satisfaction with achievement levels, and beliefs about the importance of effort versus ability. American parents were the most satisfied with their children's achie...
One group of students verbalized aloud while solving problems during all sessions, the second group verbalized aloud during the first half of the training program (first three sessions) but not during the second half, and the third group did not verbalize. It was expected that overt verbalization during the first half of training would help students learn how to work subtraction problems in a strategic (algorithmic) fashion. To the extent that students could then shift this means of regulating their task performance to a covert level, we felt that continued verbalization would offer no benefits. Researchers have shown that once strategic task behaviors are instilled, overt verbalization may be discontinued with no performance decr...
Explicit learning is presented by teaching the specific concepts individually and mastery occurs then after. The main key in such a mode of teaching is being highly structured in every activity that is undertaken inside the classroom can be considered as part of the organization of the technique. One of the defining features of the technique is the fact that the teacher commonly points out the part of the lesson where they are in, thus, the term used is explicit teaching (Boyles, 2002). The explicit form of teaching can be considered to fit lessons that are considered to introduce certain concepts, ideas or skills that are needed to be learned and that the students have low familiarity or experience with. For that matter, the...
In 1950, nearly eight percent of the total military force standing in Korea was comprised of African-American servicemen, equally approximately one hundred thousand individuals willing to fight and possibly die for their country. The country which finally gave these men this opportunity, at this time, was undergoing radical change at home and abroad in wartime. As African-Americans sought and acquired more social and economic freedom, and the consequent political power, military officials realized the underutilization of Black soldiers. As a result, the Korean War marks for the first time a major role granted to African-Americans to contribute in a significant fashion to the military endeavors of the United States. That which...
In the recent past, Sudan has gone through a very serious humanitarian crisis, rated by as among the worst in the world. This crisis has led to thousands of Sudanese being displaced from their homes. The crisis was a series of civil wars that have characterized the Southern Sudan regions, and quite recently the Darfur region. The conflict in the Darfur region is among the most recent crises in Sudan and has as a result drawn global attention. According to the UN, the Darfur conflict emerged as the worst crisis in the year 2003 as far as humanitarian aspects are concerned (UNEP/OCHA, 2004 pp 6).
So far, the Darfur crisis has led to the internal displacement of more than two million citizens. In the year 2008, the UN esti...
...Independent Research Study An investigation into the Structure of the Educational System in Morocco and its Capa for Addressing the Needs and Expectations of the Hospitality Industry in the Country
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Date : September 29, 2009
Word Count : 3,069 words
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Table of Contents
I. Consultant’s Brief 4...
Advanced researches in Forensic Mental Health can formulate innovative techniques in the sphere of Juvenile Justice and considerably help society in general. The youngsters from the very foundation of a county’s human wealth and no society must tolerate if the integrity of this human wealth is threatened. Studies in Forensic Mental Health can help us to decide how a society can fight the menace of juvenile delinquency and surge ahead towards a better future. In the majority of the cases of lawbreaking by a teenager, the mental health concerns of the adolescent lawbreaker have been thought-provoking. The case under investigation can be considered as a similar case of juvenile crime, where a fourteen-year-old boy has att...
In social work, the same principles should always apply. Involvement in social work should always be done in a way that even people with disabilities are involved and are equal beneficiaries of such services. There are a general difference in the way the social model view disability and the way that the medical model views disability. According to the social model, disability refers to the restriction of human activities and their participation, which results from social factors that do not take into account the needs of impaired people. The medical model, on the other hand, refers to disabilities as the attributes of an individual that are not normal and need treatment or specific services. Over the years, there h...
... to note that whether a student will be distracted from academic work or not solely remain his or her decision and absence of school uniforms should not be used as a reason.
Secondly School uniforms have also been found helpful when it comes to reduction of indiscipline cases that include teasing and bullying. Dincer, Feryal and Aysem have clearly established past studies on bullying behaviors which show that bullying have the propensity to pick on their victims based on what they are wearing. Given this revelation it is good to ask what will happen if all students are wearing the same thing. The obvious answer is less room is given for one to be picked on since everyone is dressed the same. When students look the same, typified here...
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