The difference between adult learning and primary learning identifies special needs for adult learners.Adult learning involves formal and informal educational initiatives that an individual engages in after a long interval …
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The adult learner shall have developed a different perspective to learning and shall have garnered skills and experience from social and professional interactions. Based on the differences between adult and initial education, special challenges exist that face adult learners and formal policies towards learning strategies are necessary for efficient adult learning. This paper explores the scope of adult learning and its associated challenges and strategies with the aim of recommending a suitable strategy to the Office of Vocational and Adult Education for policy development. This aims at improving benefits of adult education to learners. Adult education: special needs Dynamism of adult learning over the past decades identifies the need for periodic changes in the scope of adult education that offers diversified utility to learners such achieved transformation through self-reflection and development of new knowledge base. The learning process however needs to consider special needs among learners. A rich knowledge base has been developed on adult learning mechanism to facilitate identification and management of the needs. Unlike young learners in initial learning frameworks, adult learners are slow in conceptualization and knowledge development. This means longer time in a learning process and possible needs for empowerment to aid the speed of learning. The adults are however able to compensate for this weakness through their vast experience and through effective time management. Differences in visual potentials across age also identify special needs among adult learners. While human development occurs with age, vision begins to decline after the age of 18 year. The decline is gradual until the age of 40 at which the rate of decline increases and means age is a factor to needs among adult learners. Hearing potential also decline among adult learners though this occurs at late ages and hearing aids may be used to facilitate learning processes. Adults also report memory problems during their learning but the problem is less significant in contextual learning (Florida State University, n.d.). Assumptions of adult learning Basic assumptions to adults learning are another set of important factors, to adult education, that educators and policy makers need to consider for successful learning processes. Learners’ self-concept that changes with age explains a transition from nature of learning among young people in initial learning environments. A level of maturity is evident among adult learners who prefer a more independent approach to learning. There is change from dependence on learning environment to a self-reliant approach in which an adult learner is an independent and active party to the learning process. Understanding the shift in self-concept is important among educators because implementing a learning strategy that fails to recognize a learner’s desired level of independence may communicate oppression and compromise effectiveness of the learning process. Transitions across cognitive development stages supports validity of the change in self-concept at adult learning stage because each developmental stage marks increased learning potential that identifies learners abilities to learn on their own. The cognitive development theory supports independence potential by early adulthood and while level of learners’ required independence may vary across age, it is significant among adult learners (Florida State University, n.d.). Adult learning also holds the assumption of significance of learners’ experience that plays to major roles in education. Having interacted with social and professional environments, adult learners
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Introduction Without appropriate paradigms of useful strategy for teaching and learning in adult education, universities and colleges will keep on facing difficulties.One of the major challenges to higher education is dealing with the stereotypes about adult learners.
The success of any learning or development effort depends to a larger extent not only on its quality design but also on its delivery as well. Once the learning need has been identified, it is incumbent upon the educators to re-examine the learning theory that favors the targeted learner.
This article is a scholarly article thus proving its credibility. The author has deep experience in the field of education. Johnson-Freese, Joan. (2012). The Reform Of Military Education: Twenty-Five Years Later. Joan Johnson-Freese feels that the military education should change and insists on the need to teach tough and think tough by the soldiers.
Adult learning and development theories applied to military education Introduction Learning is a comprehensive process that relies on learners’ potentials as well as their environment. Favorable external environments promote learning and learning and developmental theories facilitate moderation of the environment for maximum utility in delivery of educational services.
This agreement gives brief description on what is to be learnt, what strategy will be used to learn it and what proof will be provided that a learning objective has been achieved as well as the assessment of learning
2. Boundary Maintenance: This aspect is depicted through the perceived barrier between the authority and knowledge manifested by the educators, vis-à-vis those of the participants, or the out-of-school
As disclosed in the chapter, the pragmatic or practical approach to program planning which integrates ““real-world constraints,” (and) takes into consideration the continuing changing conditions and the complexity of
Such methods that will be use when teaching the adults should be such methods that present, immediate usefulness of the material used to the learners. The method should depict the material used as relevant while it is applied in the most welcoming environment. The best
17). In this regard, the theoretical basis of understanding like the Knowles’ individualism helps in elaboration of adult learning. Knowles proposed five critical assumptions about the characteristics of adult learners that were termed as
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