Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning - Research Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Operant Conditioning Name Institution Tutor Date Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning is behavior acquisition that is controlled by its consequences. The behavior is reversible depending on the reinforcement schedules. Empirical studies and theoretical approaches have classified operant behavior into two classes of interval timing and choice…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.2% of users find it useful
B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning"

Download file to see previous pages Subjects opt for alternatives that result to low risks. Choice introduces self-control where the subject learns how to wait for better rewards instead of settling on immediate smaller rewards. A reinforcement schedule delivers reinforcement to an organism according to a predefined rule. Food is a common reinforcement used to condition hungry rats and pigeons. The schedule delivers the food for a switch closure as a result of a lever press or a peck. Similar experiments have been conducted on humans and the results are similar to those from animals. However, human beings have resulted into a wider range of adopted behavioral strategies compared to animals. A time-based schedule is the most effective where the reinforcement is delivered after a fixed or variable time period. A time marker or the reinforcement is utilized in time-based schedules. Trial-by-trial versions are also utilized during conditioning. For example, in the fixed interval schedule, an inter-trial interval precedes each trial and extra-empty trials where no food is given to the rats. In operant conditioning, the acquired behavior is reversible and can only be repeated when the reinforcement is available. ...
This is evident in different results from subsequent results of the experimental history. This indicates that the animal has undergone some internal transformation, but the learned behavior is reversible. Several researchers have encountered problems when uncovering the reversible behavior and the nonreversible internal state of the animal. Skinner is concerned with the reversible behavior and not the internal state of the subject. This makes it difficult to draw a plausible conclusion on the cause of the reversible behavior when a second reinforcement is withdrawn after a short exposure. During conditioning, the organism is exposed to the reinforcement at timed intervals. Doubling the interval time doubles the wait time after a learning period. The organism develops an approximation to the interval to be timed. In some procedures, the organism can be exposed to a stimulus and different responses are expected after an absolute or relative duration. The subject can be exposed to two stimuli that confront it with two choices. For example, a rat can be given food after either a press on the left or right lever. After a learning period, the subject is presented with the two stimuli in lieu, which introduces the question of how it distributes the responses. The subject has to develop an intermediate duration in order to differentiate between the two stimuli. Other factors such as the degree of hunger can influence the response during a fixed interval procedure. A time discrimination procedure can mitigate this problem. The subject is exposed to food after a fixed time followed by a longer period of no food. This helps the subject learn to wait then respond until the behavior has been learnt properly. Interval timing is widely used by ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning Research Paper”, n.d.)
B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning Research Paper. Retrieved from
(B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning Research Paper)
B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning Research Paper.
“B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning Research Paper”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning

Thomas Rowlands George B. McClellan and Civil War History: In the Shadow of Grant and Sherman

...War History of the Civil War “In the shadow of Grant and Sherman” By Thomas Rowland & James Mc. Pherson Order No: 181403 No: of pages: 8 Premium writer – 6530 War…..2 Abstract Union commander George B. McClellan has always been a potent subject for controversy because he was one of the most complex generals in History. Even though he was much gifted with organizational and administrative skills, yet he was both unwilling and unable to fight with the strong army that he has created. Most of the Modern day historians maintain that McClellan was a poor general; others believed him to be a highly capable commander. Therefore...
6 Pages(1500 words)Book Report/Review

Marxist Political Economy, the Conservatism f the Communist Party

... threw millions out οf work, growth was anemic at best until the Second World War, and the consequent conviction that Karl Marx's economic anticipations had been proven correct led unprecedented numbers οf intellectuals to embrace Marxism. Under such circumstances one might expect the American left to produce an outpouring οf economic analysis, and that, indeed, is the presupposition οf many accounts. Louis Adamic recalled "elaborate analyses and diagnoses οf the rapidly disintegrating socio-economic structure οf the United States" during the first years οf the 1930s (1938,325). "In those days," Malcolm Cowley concurred, "everyone was trying to be an economist οf sorts. Writers studied 'conditions,' as they called them, in various cities...
12 Pages(3000 words)Coursework

Business Plan for T & F Global Corporation

...T & F AS A GLOBAL CORPORATION - BUSINESS PLAN Submitted to The Steering Committee Prepared by Director, Technical Support Place: T & F Headquarters Date: 27/12/2007 INTRODUCTION It is a challenging scenario for T & F company. The emerging market conditions and the competition have posed considerable threats to the company. It is believed that if we donot adapt ourselves and build up on our strengths it is going to be a threat for our growth and survival. Hence, it is very vital that the company explores new systems for business development and cateres to the needs of emerging market. Hence, a business plan is developed to integrate the findings of SWOT analysis of T & F company into the strategy that can be adopted for creating...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

Asher B. Durand and the American Landscape

...ASHER B DURAND Asher Brown Durand (August 21, 1796-September 17, 1886) was an American painter of Hudson River School. He was born at Jefferson Village which is now known as Maplewood, New Jersey. He was the eighth child of the eleven children of his father who was a watchmaker and a silversmith. Durand died at the age of 90 years, an exceptional expanse of time in an era when the life expectancy was limited to 45 to 50 years in America. Durand was an accomplished etcher before he turned his attention to painting. He was the acknowledged dean of the American landscape school from his election as president of The National Academy of Design in 1845, until his death. During these forty years, he set the tone for American landscape painting...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

The Great Gatsby by F Scott Fitzgerald

His plan seems to be succeeding as he visits with her several times and she seems to be returning some of his affections, but when she’s forced to make a choice between Tom and Gatsby, Daisy chooses Tom for his old money and connections. The reader understands all this from the beginning thanks to the observations of the narrator, Nick. Following an accident when Daisy kills Tom’s girlfriend while driving Gatsby’s car, Gatsby proves his inability to handle the emergency while Tom takes charge and whisks Daisy away to a safe place. Meanwhile, Gatsby’s inability to see the truth contributes to his own tragic death at the hands of the dead woman’s grief-stricken husband. “He had come a long way to...
10 Pages(2500 words)Book Report/Review

Analysis of Article about Pregnancy and Protection of Australian Female Adolescents by Skinner

...Analysis of Research article Introduction: The rates of teenage pregnancy have been falling all over the world since 1996 and sex education for young people may be the reason for this decline. But as the authors, Skinner et al (2009) of the research article “Pregnancy and protection: perception, attitudes and experiences of Australian adolescent females” point out, Australia also demonstrates this trend with births and abortions falling but the decline is not as marked or to the level that it has developed in western Europe. This has led to increases in the call for condoms and morning after pills to be handed out in schools. In explaining the background and motivation that led them to take up this research study, the authors point out...
8 Pages(2000 words)Term Paper

Critically evaluate how theories of learning inform the use of technology to improve student learning behaviourism (Thorndike, Pavlov, Watson and Skinner) computer based, audio-visual communication theories, and constructivism(Vygotsky)

... of children’s education can establish a more collaborative action in furthering children’s education. In this regard, technology is contextualised, as it is perceived to be a powerful instrument students and teachers use as they try to gain deeper insights and knowledge on classroom topics (Fox 2009). On the other hand, behaviourism focuses on the connection among behaviour, technology, and learning within the context of consequence of the behaviour. Skinner is considered as radical among scholars who are espousing the ideals of behaviourism. This is claimed on the premise that he supported the notion that voluntary actions can also be conditioned by developing a systematic approach of ‘rewards system’ (Skinner, 1972; 1985). This shows...
17 Pages(4250 words)Essay

Skinners Theory of Operant Conditioning in Relation to the Writers Own Psychology

... the child’s play time. The punishment is less play time. It is negative because the parents get play time from the child. Positive punishment is almost the same with positive reinforcement because something is given to the individual. For example, the child does not have good grades. The child receives a warning letter from the school to make his grades better. The punishment is the warning letter. It is positive because something is given to the child, not taken away. B. F. Skinner’s operant conditioning theory is very influential in many researches about human behavior. But, his popular theory does not tell much about Skinner’s own psychology. Skinner had a brother who died at 16 because of cerebral hemorrhage. As an only child...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper

Physical Evidence John F. Kennedy Assassination Case Review

...Running Head: THE ASSASINATION OF PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy There are some frauds so well constructed that it would be stupidity not to be deceived by them ~Charles Caleb Colton [1] Introduction The assassination of President John F. Kennedy is one of the most powerful historic events in the history of the United States, setting up conspiracy theorists with fodder that has simmered in mystery for decades. Mystery has surrounded the truth about the evidence, the honesty of the reporting, and the inconsistencies between the Zapruder film and the narrative to the point that speculation ranges from intergovernmental conspiracy to Communist plot...
11 Pages(2750 words)Case Study

John F Kennedy and His Fight for Social Justice

John F Kennedy is one of the most mythologized figures in contemporary American history who was known for his debonair good looks, oratory skills, and charismatic persona. Kennedy is also termed as one of the 20th century’s most memorable presidents who left a legacy that continues to enjoy the spotlight up to date. He was born in a rich, Irish-Catholics family that was connected to politics (Pascale 60). He and his eight siblings enjoyed a privileged childhood of elite private schools, sailboats, servants, and summer homes even though he used to suffer frequent serious illnesses during his childhood and youth (Bryant 28). Despite health challenges, Kennedy strove to make his own way whereby he wrote one of the best-selling...
7 Pages(1750 words)Term Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Research Paper on topic B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning for FREE!

Contact Us