Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) Introduction Children in the developmental stages experience different kinds of mood shifts. Expression of anger and defiance is a common behavior among developing children. In fact, these are developmentally appropriate behaviors as they help the children learn to fight for their rights while learning their boundaries and the behaviors others especially elders expect from them…
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ODD is not a very common disorder, though a significant population of children suffers from it. “There are various statistics on the incidence of Oppositional Defiant Disorder in the U.S. Numbers range from 2-16% of children and teens in the U.S. have ODD” (Healthy Place, 2012). Children generally start acquiring the ODD at the age of 8 years (Healthy Place, 2012). In a vast majority of cases, children acquire the ODD before the start of teenage, though in certain cases, children may acquire the ODD in the late teenage. The effects of ODD start showing up gradually and aggravate with the passage of time. Causes of ODD A number of theories have surfaced that explain the causes of ODD in children. One of the main causes of ODD in children commonly identified by these theories is the development of temperament in the child and the response made by family to it. Some children have an inherited predisposition to ODD. Children in families where at least one parent contains a history of mood disorder have increased susceptibility to ODD. There is a whole range of parental mood disorder that can make a child vulnerable to ODD. Such mood disorders include but are not limited to conduct disorder, depressive disorder, antisocial personality disorder, attention deficit or hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and substance abuse. Families that frequently migrate from one place to another make it difficult for the children to adjust in the new locality. As a result of this, children express their discomfort through anger and hostility. ODD may also be caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain or because of a head injury. In addition to that, tension between parents may also be a significant cause of ODD in children. In some families, parents have bad terms with each other which affects the psychology of the children in a negative way. In many cases, such tensions lead the marriage to the point of breakup and a child may acquire ODD as a consequence of the divorce between the parents. Symptoms of ODD Differentiating between a child who is just emotional and another child who has ODD is complicated since the display of oppositional behavior is an integral feature of certain stages of development. However, there exists a range between the ODD and the normal oppositional behavior of a child. Children with ODD display a range of behaviors that include but are not limited to stubbornness, rudeness, short-temperedness, frequent defiance from the family principles and rules, placing the blame of their own mistakes on others, resentfulness, and irritability. However, they do not become violent to the physical extent or to the level that they start violating others’ rights. Actually, the hostile behavior of the children with ODD results from their lack of ability to distinguish between the appropriate and inappropriate behaviors. Children with ODD do not realize that they are overreacting or expressing unnecessary anger. Instead, they think that their parents are demanding too much from them or are placing unreasonable demand on them. Accordingly, these children may feel guilty for having done something seriously wrong if they realize. Diagnosis of ODD A psychologist or psychiatrist diagnoses a child with ODD if he/she displayed the symptoms of ODD. There are numerous disorders which may
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Violence" Abstract Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD deals with impulsiveness in children. However, research reveals that it can potentially co-occur with numerous other behaviour related disarrays.
The traditional assessment method is used in this case. This method does not look for causes of the behaviors observed. It is solely based on the DSM-IV behavioral criteria for ADHD (Barkley, 2005, p.92). The second approach assesses the brain and metabolic dysfunctions which are likely to cause the symptoms of abnormal behaviors and attention deficits.
The cause of this disease has not been definitively established, nevertheless, conduct disorder, as well as other childhood and adolescent mental disorders have been credited as predisposing factors to the development of antisocial personality disorder. Its treatment and prevention therefore have been based on the prevention of the onset of such childhood and adolescent disorders.
Treatment of such state should be taken care with endurance and persistence. Professionals involving a social worker, psychotherapist or doctor of psychiatry must take care of this condition. The present article is an attempt to foster an understanding towards the psychological implications of the ADHD as it pertains to listening comprehension.
The paper is aimed to define and to discuss the symptoms, treatments, and management methods related to ODD. Oppositional Defiant Disorder Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is one of the conditions that can affect the behavior, personality and performance of a person at home and in the society.
The author explains that several conditions must be observed in order the condition could meet the requirements of DSM-IV, namely: the defiant behavior must interfere with the ability to function in home, school; the defiant behavior should not be caused by other childhood disorder such as attention deficit, anxiety, depression or others.
It is most commonly observed in children and adolescents with a frequency of 16 to 22 percent cases observed in the school-going children. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-4-TR) the estimate prevalence of oppositional deficit disorder has been established as 2 to 16 percent.
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a behavioral syndrome that mostly affects kids and adolescents. It is characterized by poor cooperation with the family or friend, high temper, annoying behaviors and negativistic characters. This disease makes the family members or relatives feel worried or anxious.
The psychological disorder is generally evident before age three, and includes impaired and irregular communication skills, avoidance of eye contact, poor development of language for social communication, inability for symbolic or imaginative play, engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistances to changes in the environment or daily routine, and unusual responses to sensory experiences.
It provides a means of expression to the child; just as an adult expresses himself verbally. During directive or structured play therapy the play activities and settings are selected by the therapist while in non-directive or child-centered play therapy (CCPT), the children themselves select them.
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