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Extract of sample "Writing Assessment: A Six Traits Approach"
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13). Writing is a highly complex process, and there is much more to a solid piece of writing than the traditional expectations of grammar and mechanics (Culham 12). Many educators are in search of the most meaningful and authentic methods of critiquing students' written work. The 6+ 1 Trait® Writing model is a specific approach to writing instruction and evaluation based upon "a vocabulary teachers use to describe their vision of what good writing looks like" (Culham 7). This model offers an understandable language teachers and students can use for describing quality writing (Perchemlides & Coutant 54-55). The 6+ 1 Trait® Writing Model Frustrated by standardized, multiple-choice assessment instruments, teachers in the northwestern region of the United States searched for a more valid and user-friendly format for teaching and assessing student writing (Culham 10). After careful study of research on writing assessment and close examination of endless forms of writing, teachers and along with researchers from the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory concluded that several characteristics were necessary to create exemplary writing. From this realization, the 6+ 1 Trait® Writing model scoring criteria were established (Culham 10). The 6+ 1 Traits® represent characteristics deemed crucial for making all types of written communication effective. They include ideas, organization, voice, word choice, sentence fluency, conventions, and presentation (Culham 214). A well-developed, focused idea provides a clear message to readers. The "ideas" trait basically deals with the content of a composition. A paper containing a solid point with good supporting evidence demonstrates exemplary application of ideas. A writer must stay focused on the topic and only utilize the details that matter. This trait is sometimes difficult for young writers who struggle with finding a topic (Culham, 35-38). Organization involves the arrangement of the ideas. It is about the internal structure of writing. Logical sequencing and proper use of transitions are important to this particular trait. The "organization" trait should also work to enhance the main ideas within a piece of writing. Students of all ages may find this particular trait challenging as there is not often one perfect structure that works for all types of writing (Culham 70-72). Feeling and personal style make up the "voice" trait. Often referred to as "the soul of the piece" (Culham 12), voice is that special ingredient which truly makes a writer's piece his or her own creation. It is the tone of the message. While it is not always easy to see and therefore, evaluate, voice is a powerful trait that can deeply engage readers and cause them to respond and think in emotional ways. When voice is effective, there should be strong interaction between the writer and his or her readers (Culham, 16). Word choice involves the precise use of words in writing. Rich and vivid language can add so much to writing. Quality descriptive text often displays a wonderful selection of words, greatly enhancing the topic. A writer who is an expert in the "word choice" trait will take extra care to use just the right words for his or her story (Culham 142-144). The fifth trait in the 6+ 1 Trait® Writing model is "sentence fluency." This is the attribute of writing that creates the music of the piece. Sentences of varying length allow for rhythm and flow, which make the writing pleasant to the ear. Because of that quality, sentence fluency is sometimes referred to as the audible trait (Culham 180-181). The sixth trait is often viewed as tremendously important to first-rate writing, although it is just one of the qualities that lend themselves to great work. Conventions are referred to as the
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The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) was developed in the 1930s by Harvard University psychiatrist Henry A. Murray and university student Christiana Morgan in the pursuit of identifying personality characteristics and unconscious human desires (Bosshardt, 2004). TAT assessments generally consist of 31 different cards in which varying ambiguous illustrations and photos are displayed, asking participants to respond to their interpretations of what is occurring within each visual image. Internal conflicts or motivational desires are generally projected by participants who are exposed to TAT assessments, allowing psychologists to determine the personality constructs of individuals.
Prior to the discussion of training needs assessment, I would discuss several issues in the human resources management process that determine why training is important. Daft and Fitzgerald (1992) indicate that in order to manage an organization effectively in a competitive environment, planning for human resources strategy requires several factors several external factors to be considered.
1. Attract an effective workforce. This includes planning on the number of employees required, job analysis or what types of jobs should be conducted or jobs associated with the types of business, forecasting future recruitment, recruiting because good employees need to be recruited, and selecting. As stated by Daft an...
With the increased awareness and advancement in research, involving human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, clinical expertise exists for the prevention and management of chronic viral diseases like HCV among injection drug users, since the mode of infection and behavior of vulnerable population for both HIV and HCV contagion are identical. Since the transmission of HCV is similar to HIV and IDU is the primary risk factor for HCV infection, and coinfection of these two blood-borne diseases cause morbidity and mortality, harm reduction approach and the strategies that address the social and economic harms that impact an individual, community, or society are paramount in preventing the epidemic.
The risks may vary in terms of nature or scope according to the situation. So since the risk is so common in project management, a very important aspect of managing a project is analyzing all the possible risks that are associated with that particular project. It makes no sense of going on with a project and not giving a thought to the risks that could affect the success. Once these risks are analyzed, the project manager will have all the possible risks in front of him. He will know the degree of risk and also the benefits that the organization will get if the risk is taken. Therefore only after a risk analysis, the project manager is in a position to conclude whether or not it is worth taking the risk and going on with a certain...
Ineffective implementations, a greater part of Six Sigma projects is chosen for the evaluative bottom-line customer effect that is accomplished within two to six months (Bertels 2003). The projects conveyed through the use of an organized set of statistical instruments and process improvement strategies through the well-educated and well-trained workforce in an organization that has made it definite that Six Sigma is a career enhancement (ibid).
In business people’s dealings, they see companies perceiving Six Sigma in two ways, namely as an aggregate of powerful instruments for enhancing processes and products and as a framework for enhancing both the process-and-people-associated features of business performance....
Fergusson et. al. (2002) state that deviant peer choices are prone to contribute to an adolescences propensity to commit the crime, and that this is consistent with a growing amount of evidence. However, their study was able to study how deviant peer choices affects on a crime committed by the adolescent at different ages. The results showed that deviant peer choices and their influence on youth crime decreases as the adolescent gets older. Fergusson et. al. (2002) believe that these results are in accordance with developmental stages, as escalating life experience would ensure less vulnerability to peer influence.
Additionally, evidence shows the affects an unstable family environment can have psychologically and behav...
When students learn science, they construct meanings and develop understandings in a social context, state Duit & Treagust (1998: 4). Classroom verbal discourse in the form of teacher talk and teacher-student interactions form the basis for most of this meaning-making. Because teacher questions are a frequent component of classroom talk, they play an important role in determining the nature of discourse during science instruction. The cognitive processes that students engage in, as they undertake the process of constructing scientific knowledge, to a large extent depend on the kinds of questions that teachers ask and their way of asking the questions.
Chin (2007: 816) conducted a study to investigate questioning-bas...
In the recent past, Sudan has gone through a very serious humanitarian crisis, rated by as among the worst in the world. This crisis has led to thousands of Sudanese being displaced from their homes. The crisis was a series of civil wars that have characterized the Southern Sudan regions, and quite recently the Darfur region. The conflict in the Darfur region is among the most recent crises in Sudan and has as a result drawn global attention. According to the UN, the Darfur conflict emerged as the worst crisis in the year 2003 as far as humanitarian aspects are concerned (UNEP/OCHA, 2004 pp 6).
So far, the Darfur crisis has led to the internal displacement of more than two million citizens. In the year 2008, the UN esti...
The UK Department of Health defines it as “the framework through which NHS organizations are accountable for continuously improving the quality of their services and safeguarding high standards of care by creating an environment in which excellence in clinical care will flourish.” (Department of Health, 2004).
The term clinical governance gained importance following the high mortality rate for pediatric cardiac surgery at the Bristol Royal Infirmary. The incident led to the formation by the government in 1998 of the Kennedy Commission, which proved a turning point in overhauling the NHS (Kennedy, 2001). The commission’s final report recommended that change “can only be brought about with the willing...
... tend to compromise just to be at peace with the conflict arising and be over it after knowing I had done everything I am supposed to do.
1. Were you surprised by the results? Why or why not?
The results of the assessment did not surprise me a bit. And I should say I couldn’t agree more. When presented with random situations that may arise in conflicting ideas or viewpoints, I can say that I am the type of person who approaches issues emphasizing on systematic approaches. I usually hear both sides of the discussion and evaluate the issue before I make my own judgment. I am not easily swayed with other people’s opinion even when a lot of them think in an opposite way that I do. When making judgment call, for example, it’s not about...
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