EDUCATIONAL POLICIES BY COURSE For a number of politicians and policy makers, educational institutions are the biggest problem and the best solution. They are the best solution due to their ability to secure social transformation…
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Every successive government views education as a field for change as public opinion and support for educational development is always guaranteed. Therefore, every government promises to lift standards, enhance achievement and schools. While methods and initiatives differ with every political party, the issue of improving schools has been a regular policy objective in many countries (Townsend, 2007). All around the world, governments are trying out to new policies to deal with innovative technologies, new world order and a dynamic global economy. All through the post-war period, there have been numerous efforts to improve the UK education system, frequently with a clear objective to try and make it more effective (Machin & Vignoles, 2006). It is believed that education plays a significant role in facilitating economic growth, equality of opportunity and social justice (Townsend, 2007). Over the last two decades, there has been an unparalleled growth in public interest in education, which has given rise to a number of policies such as SureStart, Every Child Matters (ECM), Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA), expansion Higher Education, etc. Trowler (2003:95) defines education policy as “… a specification of principles and actions, related to educational issues, which are followed or which should be followed and which are designed to being about desired goals.” The definition clearly illustrates that fact that policy is a process, something which is dynamic and not unchangeable. Trowler (2003) further suggests that the ‘dynamic’ comes from: political and educational conflict; interpretation of policy and the practical implication for individuals involved at all levels of the education system. Thus a working and debatable definition of the education policy-making process could be the historical, social and political processes that shape a theme or issue within the education system (Trowler, 2003). Ozga (2000) suggests that policy can be viewed directly in terms as the actions of government, intended to secure certain results. Similarly, it can be considered a process rather than a product, entailing negotiation, opposition or resistance among various segments who might not be a part of the formal machinery of official policy making. Ozga (1990) asserts that educational policy is not an impartial creation and it is also not created entirely at a single level without finding the middle ground with others. In theory, McLaughlin (1987) shows that policy implementation studies demonstrates how the transformation of policy into practice is distinguished by “bargaining and negotiation” and how policy as enacted varies from policy as designed. Research further demonstrates the way officially formulated educational policies are adapted, sometimes altered, when executed in schools and classrooms (Coburn, 2001). Moreover, policies are challenged, interpreted and performed in a variety of areas as words and meanings of policymakers do not always transform directly and clearly into institutional operations. They are inflected, thought over, opposed and misinterpreted, or in a few cases simply prove impracticable. It is also essential not to misjudge the logical rationality of policy (Ball, 2008). State constitutions designate different institutions with task and official authority for education policymaking. In the modern world, constitutional power and responsibility might be the only complete
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In what specific ways, if any, have key education structures and policies in the UK and elsewhere been affected by globalization trends? Globalization is a process of amalgamation and communication amongst the populace, companies and government of different nations.
There were only a few female-only institutions that provided education to the women. The primary focus of these schools was to teach and prepare women to become good housewives and mothers although a few got the opportunity to get trained for the restricted professional world (“Unigo”, 2009).
Mostly, the education topic revolves around the advancement of children in the society to promote productivity within individuals as they grow into active societal members (Spicker, 2011). However, education is not limited to any individual as it involves a continuing process throughout an individual’s lifetime.
Rigorous levels of work have been manifested on this domain at the national level and the governments also have adopted various policies with their following impacts on the schools. As for instance in schools in England, the real focus is given on the bureaucracy of inclusion and managerial approach which somewhat denies the very important role of the teacher in the schools.
Education is affected and likewise affects society’s economics, politics and relevant social issues. In the UK, education has undergone several phases of reforms. Neoliberalist philosophy has influenced educational policies. One of the most controversial reform is the academisation of schools, or the taking over of poorly performing schools by private entities and other institutions to introduce changes that will improve them and reach the highest standards of achievement for its students.
According to the report Education is given uttermost importance by different states in the world. This is because the performance of the state’s economy is considered greatly influenced by the knowledge. Different governments across the world develop policies that inform the education system with an aim to facilitate production of competent and resourceful workforce.
It has been refined and expanded upon as education has become of critical importance to our understanding of our environment. Government support for Environmental Education has helped maintain it as an important public issue in the US and around the world.
The Education and Inspections Bill characterizes a main step forward in the government’s aspiration οf ensuring that every child in every school in every community gets the education they required to facilitate them to fulfil their potential. It obliges school
lisation, there have been observations (Council on Higher Education, 2000) regarding huge alterations in the field of education, in order to equip students with the capability of international standards. For this reason, a huge number of countries have undergone changes in their
Ford (p. 1) observes that this perception has no scientifically proven foundation as stated by the American Psychological Association (Think Again 2014) summary of studies in the area. Related studies have suggested that it is
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