This essay "The differences in educational attainment in class, gender and ethnicity" discusses the relationship between gender and achievement gap, ethnic group and achievement gap and socio-economic class and the achievement gap. And the interrelationship between all three factors…
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This discussion is in the context of ethnic groups, turns toward the socio-economic factors when one tries to find out reasons behind these differences. The Labour Force Survey( 2004/05) as in defined households poverty on the basis of income and presented the percentage of different ethnic groups. White British are 20% of the total with the lowest in income poverty. Compared to the Whites, 25% of Indian, 30% of Black Caribbean, 45% of Black African, 55% of Pakistani and 65% of Bangladeshi households are in income poverty. Strand and Lindsay (2009) reported an economic disadvantage on the basis of Free School Meal in the UK. They indicate that in 2005, 11% Chinese, 12% Indian, 14% White British pupils, up to 30% for the Black Caribbean, 34% for Pakistani, 44% Black African and 47% for Bangladeshi pupils.Patterns emerge between the achievement gap and socioeconomic disadvantage.The sociologist explains that such gaps are rooted in the economic backgrounds. Historically, as early as 1960, it had been pointed out that poor children fell behind rich and middle-class during the early age and then stayed behind all school life. The most significant factor or factors had not been found. Sylva et al expressed that, in the early years, parenting practices and learning environment at home are crucial factors in educational attainment and progress.Hart and Risley conducted an intensive research project on language acquisition. The study continued for ten years and covered 42 families with newborn children in Kansas City....
Sylva et al, (2004) expressed that, in the early years, parenting practices and learning environment at home are crucial factors in educational attainment and progress. Hart and Risley(1995) conducted an intensive research project on language acquisition. The study continued for ten years and covered 42 families with newborn children in Kansas City. They families can roughly be divided into two classes naming ‘professional’ and ‘on-welfare’. During the first three years, they visited each family once a month. They recorded all communication between the child and the parents. The researchers then analyzed each child’s language development comparing the each parent’s communication style. They found the following amazing gaps Child Development Professional Families On-welfare Families Vocabulary by 3 years 1100 525 Parents Utterances per hour 487 178 Encouragement Expressions listened by 3 500,000 75,000 Discouragement Expressions listened by 3 80,000 200,000 Average IQ of the group 117 79 Table 1 developed on the data from Hart and Risley(1995) These findings from Hart and Risley(1995) expose some interesting and crucial relationships. The comparison of the vocabulary scores of each child correlated closely to the number of words the parents spoke to the child. Further, the child from lower socio economic class heard more discouragement and disapproval words whereas child from professional families heard encouragement and praise words most of the time. Children’s higher IQ , their higher vocabulary and the higher encouragement words by the parents have correlation among the professional families. On the other hand, Children’s lower IQ , their lower vocabulary and the lower encouragement words by their
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