Reading is a challenge for many students, and those who struggle in this area realize very quickly that school is much harder for them. Therefore, this paper will discuss some of the techniques available to help struggling readers achieve better fluency…
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There are many ways to help improve reading fluency for students. According to researchers Wolf& Katzir-Cohen, (2001) there are 25 words used daily by the student which make up about 33 percent of what students read at school. The reading strategies for teachers to use with struggling readers are very broad. There are several studies which involve demonstrating reading techniques to increase fluency, including having the books the students read in class also taken home and read again with family members. Author Darling (2005) implied that “Engaging parents in their children's reading acquisition, particularly by focusing their attention on the skill areas outlined in this column, can help children find greater success in school.” The author further explains that children can learn more with teacher and parent collaboration. This suggests that the onus of learning is not placed solely upon the teacher, but is also a responsibility the parent must undertake. The reasons for this are clear: 1) to reinforce the strategies learned in school, 2) to allow the child to read in a non-judgmental environment, away from peers and 3) to involve the parent in the child’s learning process.
Prosody refers to expressive interpretation, which speaks to the student’s comprehension of the reading material. These three components allow the teacher (and the parent) to accurately assess each student’s reading and comprehension. According to authors Morrow, Kuhn, & Schwanenflugel (2006) their Family Fluency Program shows that children who read automatically become fluent readers and are able to decode words more freely. The authors also stated that prosody is used by fluent readers who use “appropriate pitch, pace, and phrasing” for better comprehension (p. 1). The program by Morrow, Kuhn, & Schwanenflugel (2006) shows the importance of parental involvement at the school and home, which also improves the student’s fluency. Students who are behind in reading may have a hard time adapting to new reading strategies. This is why it is particularly important that the strategies being used in school are reinforced at home. According to the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2000) there are five key components to watch for in assessing reading ability in students aged 3-9. These components are phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension. Watching for these key skills at home during parent-child reading sessions can assist a student with early development, particularly if the process starts before the student reaches kindergarten. There are reports on early literacy skills by Chard,Simmons, & Kameenui (1995) Snowv, Bums, &Griffin (1998) showing rates for early increase and indicating the importance of reading as a life skill. Useful Approaches for Struggling Readers There are three main approaches used for struggling readers: whole class reading and partnership reading,
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However, it is important to note that American students are also beginning to struggle with reading. According to statistics provided by the Broad Foundation Education, “68 percent of 8th graders can’t read at grade level, and most will never catch up” ("Broad Foundation Education ").
In this paper, some strategies will be discussed which can be used to improve students’ fluency and word study. Teachers can use these strategies after evaluating the fluency level of their students using task-based approach. Using task-based approach, teachers assign different tasks to the students for evaluation, such as, answering the questions after listening to small audio clips and, speaking some sentences on some topic, and making students communicate with other students and discuss different issues.
If children struggle to decode words, then they do not have mental resources or attention left over to dedicate to enjoyment and comprehension. This, therefore, means that they are actually reading but only word calling. One of the key goals of reading instructions is to enhance fluency.
Reading is important to everyone, as it is through reading that people are able to acquire knowledge and use that knowledge elsewhere. Reading comes with passion. An individual has to have the passion to read a certain article in order for the text that is being read to make sense.
Reading Comprehension Richardson, Morgan and Fleener (2008) provided a comprehensive definition of reading comprehension, drawing from a number of sources and paradigms. It was stated that it is not merely basic reading or the recognition of words and symbols.
In general, reading is a process that is comprised of three general phases; 1) before-; 2) during-; and 3) after-reading. Recognition of this process allows a reader to develop their own personal strategies that align with goal outcomes of each phase. In this way a reader can be assured that they will read more effectively, deeply and meaningfully (Fairbrain, 2000).
Reading aloud allows the students to have an example to follow. They will then attempt to adopt the methods used by the fluent reader as their own.
Partner reading involves one peer reading aloud or listening to the reading of another.
ills based phonics approach which stresses on the breaking down of individual word into several component sounds, or the relatively easier and child-centric approach which stresses on the reading of texts and simultaneously deciphering its meaning through fun shared readings in
p. Criticism: Implementing interventions to students with reading problems should occur within scientific processes that mainly target student needs as a measure of selecting and matching evidence-based
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