Preschool is a time when children may first encounter mathematical learning, however, much recent research has indicated that preschool children have the ability to understand a variety of mathematical concepts even prior to entering kindergarten…
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That is why early childhood programs are increasingly expected to implement mathematics instruction in classrooms because of young children’s early mathematical knowledge. Development of early math skills provides the foundation for later learning (Clements & Sarama, 2008; NAEYC & NCTM, 2008; Lee & Ginsburg, 2008). The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM, 2000) emphasizes the need to provide high quality early childhood mathematics programs in preschools because a solid mathematical foundation in early childhood is essential. At this age, young children are building their own perceptions of what math is – what it means to know and do math and even about themselves as math learners. “These beliefs influence their thinking about, performance in, and attitudes toward mathematics and decisions related to studying mathematics in later years” (p. 98) According to the NCTM, the quality of mathematical education in early childhood plays an important part in the child’s understanding of possibly difficult math concepts (Loop, 2009). Although there have been many studies pertaining to patterns of mathematical teaching in preschool, there is a lack of research on how teachers of mathematics perceive how young children learn math concepts and even what to teach in accordance to the developmental level of young children. That is why enhancing early childhood education teachers’ confidence and competence in teaching math is considered a route to improvement of mathematics instruction in preschool. Sarama & DiBiase suggests that early childhood teacher training focus both on mathematics content and teachers’ dispositions towards math, reflecting the need for highly qualified professionals (2004). The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) Code of Ethics states: “In decisions concerning children’s programs, we shall draw upon the education, experience, and expertise of staff members” (Decker, Decker, Freeman, & Knorpf, 2009, p.359). This principle pertains to the ideal of professional training and development of early childhood educators, “To further the professional development of the field of early childhood care and education and to strengthen its commitment to realizing its core values” (Decker et al, 2009, p.361). Early childhood educators need training for all the tasks expected of them when they begin teach young children. Being an effective teacher encompasses a wide spectrum of responsibilities – from designing an environment conducive to learning, to planning appropriate lessons for young children and implementing them with effective educational strategies, to being able to manage the class well and instilling discipline in the children, to involving parents and coordinating with others regarding the provision of quality education for the children. It takes effort to be able to manage all these skills at the same time, hence professional training with experience is required. The current study has taken inspiration and ideas from the work of Platas (2008) entitled “Measuring Teachers’ Knowledge of Early Mathematical Development and their Beliefs about Mathematics Teaching and Learning in the Preschool Classroom”. Platas was able to measure the knowledge of early mathematical development and beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning in the preschool classroom of preschool teachers through the use of developed and validated survey instruments and statistical analysis (2008). The study found a significant
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Children in the early childhood stage usually get their first taste of math concepts and learn their first known math skills when they step into a day care or nursery program. A special committee of the National Research Council (2009) has concluded that most young children have the ability to learn and be really competent in Math, but there are many constraints that deter them from being so.
School readiness demands that children possess certain social, emotional, physical, cognitive, and language abilities. With a wide array of domains that characterize school readiness, teachers make an effort to give the best suggestions as to how to cultivate, support, and strengthen the growth and progress of children as they enter formal education.
Most of these researches and findings will be discussed in this chapter with an aim of appreciating and having an overview of the progress that has been made in this field of study. The literature review section will be divided into subtitles to ease the understanding amongst the uses of this proposed research.
These students have different needs and are stigmatized by the negative thoughts and prejudices that many teachers have, which are carried over from their own life experiences (Harper and Davis, 2012). African American males are often seen as not willing to work or not ready for college.
That is why early childhood programs are increasingly required to implement mathematics instruction in classrooms because of young children’s early mathematical knowledge. Development of early math skills provides the foundation for later learning (Clements & Sarama, 2008; NAEYC & NCTM, 2008; Lee & Ginsburg, 2008).
o local problems 32 1.9.2 Professional application 33 1.9.3Application for bringing positive social change 33 1.10 Summary and Transition 33 Bibliography 36 Appendix 1 39 Appendix 2 40 Georgia CRCT Results for Appling County 40 Appendix 3 44 Lexile Map of Georgia 44 Appendix 4 45 Individual Lexile Report 45 Appendix 5 46 Results of NWEA (2011) Study 46 Table of Figures Figure 1: Plan for review of theoretical framework for the study 6 Figure 2: Grade level text and Reader Lexile Boundaries with median Lexiles and Lexile at cut scores 15 Figure 3: Four pillars of NCLB 16 Figure 4: Mapping Educational Progress: under NCLB all states in the US have made significant educational progress 18 Figure
Interactive whiteboards (IWBs) to some classrooms are crucial to creating the opportunity for children to interact with their subject matter and this allows the teacher to teach creatively instead of having to depend on lecturing the class. As an example, Northcote, Mildenhall, Marshall and Swan (2010) suggest that there are several advantages to using IWBs in the classroom for both teachers and students.
Rural areas, however, has preschool facilities that lag far behind their urban counterparts in terms of quality, regularity of programs, and management. To properly manage and develop the system of preschool education in China, private companies will continue to take the lead, with the input of the national government of the PRC.
Students develop intellectually when they take the mathematics problems and apply their own knowledge when solving it. The project method promotes dialogue between students because they discuss and share knowledge in Mathematics when working on the project.