Petroleum extraction process - Term Paper Example

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Oil products like gasoline and diesel are used in transport as fossil fuel. Petroleum is a raw material for production of plastics and other organic compounds. Thus, petroleum industry combines…
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Petroleum extraction process
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Download file to see previous pages However, to start drilling the reservoir containing the sufficient amount of oil should be found. The researches on oilfield exploration started in 19th century. They were aimed on studying features of bedrocks. The main purpose was to find the rocks that were suitable rock as reservoir of oil (Speight 100). In the beginning of the 20th century surface rock with suitable characteristics were studied. New techniques developed in 1960s provided the possibility of exploration below the surface of earth (Speight 101).
New geophysical technologies are based on studying gravitational, magnetic, seismic, electric, electromagnetic and radioactive properties of the bedrocks. The methods are subdivided on techniques without depth control and techniques with depth control. The first group utilize spontaneous responses from local and distant sources that are controlled by the observer. The second group foresees introduction of energy (electric or seismic) into the ground, analyze and interpretation of transmissibility (Speight 101).
Gravitational methods are connected with studies of gravitational field which is affected by differences in density of geological bodies. Therefore, the gravimeter detects differences in density, and the detected variations permit to make a conclusion about the presence of rock formations (particularly oil). Magnetic methods are based on detection of the magnetic properties of the rocks. Detected difference provide the possibility to suggest the presence of desired materials. Seismic methods are based on creation artificial shock and detection the time necessary for the vibration impulse to get to the seismic detector. Depending on the obtained results, the conclusion about presence of oil can be made. Electric and radioactive methods are based on the measurement of conductivity and radioactivity (respectively) of the studied ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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