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Biochemistry - Case Study Example

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This glucose is actually the product of glycogenolysis and provides muscle with Adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) which is the basic energy currency for the cell. Pyruvate is the end…
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Download file to see previous pages This lactate is normally takes back to liver where it would convert back into pyruvate and glucose through process of gluconeogenesis. This glucose is transferred back again muscle and the cycle is completed. In the process of reconversion of glucose six ATP molecules are consumed and hence there is net loss of 4 ATP’s in one cycle. ( Nelson 2005).
If this whole process was to occur in muscle only, than there would be excessive loss of energy and muscle wasting just as it was seen with the patient in clinical presentation. There would be net loss of energy instead of production and lactic acid would ultimately start accumulating in the muscle causing lactic acidosis. Moreover, ATP consumption would be faster than its production, some ADP would also be converted into AMP which is ultimately lost in urine and all these are signs of chronic fatigue syndrome or mitochondrial disease. ( Sarah Myhill 2009).
A hypothetical defect in pyruvate dehydrogenase or Isocitrate dehydrogenase or α-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase can prevent increase in ATP generation because these enzymes produce NADH in citric acid cycle which is equivalent to 2.5ATPs. Moreover, Succinate dehydrogenase deficiency can also cause this defect since it produces FAD which is equal to 1.5ATPs. These enzymes can greatly damage the production of ATP through. The concentration of NAD+ is maintained in body and it is reconverted and regenerated through other biochemical procedures that occur inside the cell like citric acid cycle (Nesbitt V 2011). NADH and FADH2 from citric acid cycle get used in electron transport chain and undergo oxidative phosphorylation where they use oxygen and converted ADP into ATP by using a molecule of phosphate as well. This is how citric acid products are converted into ATP.
Coenzyme Q10 plays a central role in oxidative phosphorylation of cell. It has a very unique role in electron transport chain and is basically lipid soluble and maintains the proton ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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