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Serum Markers for Septicemia - Research Paper Example

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Serum Biomarkers Of Sepsis Introduction Sepsis is an innate immunological response of the systemic inflammatory pathway to infection, and is growing problem worldwide inn terms of mortality rates. Immediate treatment is always required which necessitates the need of early and accurate diagnosis…
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Serum Markers for Septicemia
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Download file to see previous pages It is clear that a single biomarker which is ideal though has not been identified but a series specific studies on individual pathogen mediated sepsis has been studied extensively,. Challenges that are faced during biomarker research lied in the lack of uniform protocol and methodology , standardization of the assays and the detection levels to be fixed age wise from population to population. The reliable detection of Biomarkers can be useful to have a immense diagnostic and prognostic relevance in relation to the management of sepsis. Sepsis is considered as the most important cause of morbidity and mortality. By sepsis we mean infection of the blood and if it is caused by bacteria we term it as bacteremia and if by virus it is termed viremia. As such the infection in the blood is not so dangerous but as blood perfuses the important tissues and organs infections can be carried by blood to the kidneys or lungs which can result in the end organ failures of a patient leading to death in severe conditions. The main issue is that sepsis often lacks clinical manifestations so if the specific and the sensitive indicators of the infections are collected and analyzed then it will create superior out comes in the management of the disease. Immunologically it can be considered as the dysregulation of the response of the innate immune system. Biomarkers are hence important to signal the presence and severity of sepsis in early conditions for effective prognostic values and importance.(Chiesa,1998)(De Bont,1994)(Manroe,1979)(Squire,1979). It is very important to note that sepsis is not a true disease and just a physiological manifestation of the systemic immune response in innate immunity majority of the studies define sepsis to be a systemic inflammatory response to a bacteria, virus or fungi. In clinical setting several other physiological symtoms must be presented to properly diagnose sepsis. The common treatments of patients suspected with sepsis aims to eradicate the bacteria in the blood or reduce its growth by using broad spectrum antimicrobials. The gold standard of sepsis diagnosis has been traditionally the use of microbial cultures to identify the source of illness. The major limitation of using cultures in the length of the time required to develop cultures to identifiable quantities to detect sepsis and the possible icrobes to start the treatment with antimicrobials and this with Bactek culture takes around 48 hours and hence there is a need of early detection through the detection of serum biomarkers which thus becomes important. Even the cultures might be insensitive under several conditions including the slow growing and non cultivatable organisms present at very low concentrations . So in the light of this problem alternative diagnostic methods using molecular biology tool kits have been developed to address the situation for rapid and automated detection of sepsis. These tests are basically the ELISA tests, flow cytometric detection of the specific marker antigens,immunocolorimetric tests ,FISH methodologies and PCR and amplified PCR techniques and the main ideology was to detect the marker proteins. In parallel to the development of biomarkers which provides a faster and more sensitive diagnostic methods for infectious microbes thus relies on the monitoring of the changes in specific serum protein biomarker concentrations. Biomarker is best defined as a factor or feature that can ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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