Nobody downloaded yet

Optical isomerism in Thalidomide - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Optical isomerism in Thalidomide Thalidomide is a sedative myeloma multiple medication. Evidence has documented that if thalidomide is taken during pregnancy, it may result into severe birth defects. Thalidomide was initially sold from 1957 in various countries until 1961 when it was associated with birth defects and withdrawn from the market…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER93.8% of users find it useful
Optical isomerism in Thalidomide
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Optical isomerism in Thalidomide"

Download file to see previous pages The tragedy which occurred due to thalidomide use led to very stringent testing requirement for pesticides and drugs before licensing. Initially, thalidomide was prescribed as effective painkiller and tranquilizer for insomnia, colds, coughs, and headaches. It was a very effective antiemetic inhibiting morning sickness, and this resulted into many pregnant women using thalidomide in order relieve their pregnancy symptoms. The relationship between the drug and defects in birth were suspected by Australian obstetrician, McBride William, and the German pediatrician, Lenz Widukind. This was later proven in 1961 by Lenz. Approximately 2500 thalidomide babies were born in Germany. The United States Congress constituted laws demanding safety tests during pregnancy before approving any drug. Other nations have passed similar laws too. This has seen thalidomide not sold or prescribed in several countries for decades1. The severe thalidomide impacts led to strict tests being carried out. The drug was tested as a one single agent for treating multiple myeloma because of its ant angiogenesis activity during the research trials. Many studies have illustrated that thalidomide in combination with dexamethasone increases the rate of survival of the patients of multiple myeloma2. However, commercially produced drug differed from the one used during the research trials, and this resulted into other thalidomide effects. The commercially produced drug differed from that used in research trials in that during commercial productions, thalidomide was produced in combination with dexamethasone and melphalan, which is today the regimen most common for the patients who are newly diagnosed with multiple myeloma. This has seen the development of other side effects such as fatigue, polyneuropathy, venous thromboembolism (VTE), skin rush, or blood clot, which may result into myocardial infarction or stroke. Several scientists have made reviews on VTE relationship with thalidomide in multiple myeloma diagnosed patients, and the results show that thalidomide administered without prophylaxis leads to a high rate of VTE (26%). Owing to this high VTE rates with thalidomide combined with doxorubicin or dexamethasone, which is commercially produces, a black box warning was given in 2006 in the United States to the thalidomide package showing that multiple myeloma patients receiving thalidomide-dexamethasone bay concurrently benefit from thromboembolism prophylaxis or aspirin. There has been production of other thalidomide derivatives such as lenalidomide and bortezomib3. The presence of optical isomers severely affects fetal development in pregnant women. Tests from the laboratory after the thalidomide disaster indicated that in some animals the 'R' isomer was an effective sedative, but the 'S' enantiomer was tetragenic. The presence of the optical isomers may also lead to phocomelia which is characterized by shortened limbs, or even complete absence. In addition, fetus may develop hypo plastic or external ear abnormalities, facial palsy, malfunctions of genitourinary and gastrointestinal tract, or even complete absent bones. Approximately 40% of such fetuses die after birth4. Conclusion To sum up, there is no acute toxicity in thalidomide and a fatal overdose may be impossible virtually. As a component of thalidomide, Citalopram has severe effects with the dosage of thalidomide. This is because Citalopram and peripheral ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Optical isomerism in Thalidomide Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Optical Isomerism in Thalidomide Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words)
“Optical Isomerism in Thalidomide Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
Optical Distortion, Inc
...? Topic: Optical distortion Inc OPTICAL DISTORTION INC Executive Summary Optical distortion Inc (ODI) is a global poultry firm that manufactures contact lenses for chicken to address the problems of cataracts and other eye problems that birds go through. Having being invented in 1965 by Robert D Garrison and the chicken farm owner in Oregon, ODI has continued to grow and expand in the poultry industry. By purchasing of patents and other legal rights, it dedicated itself in providing a solution to birds that suffer from cannibalism and improve the retention problems by debeaking them. The aim was to increase the egg production and meat for its customers. The firm, serving in most regions...
4 Pages(1000 words)Case Study
Optical parameter
...? Optical Parameter Optical parameter involves reflection, refraction, and absorption. In all these cases, light is propagated as rays. A ray, in this case, is defined as an instrument used to model the propagation of light. The rays of light are normally propagated in a path that is considered rectilinear whenever they travel in any medium (Erik, 2004). At the interface of two media that are not similar, a ray would bend, curve if in media that changes its refractive index, reflected or absorbed. Optical parameters determined the propagation of the rays in an optical system depending on the wavelength of the ray. This vital optics simplification does not...
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper
Optical Spinel Ceramics Processing
...Sur Optical Spinel Ceramics Processing Introduction: Spinel (MgAl2O4) Ceramin refers to a material that is cubic crystalline in nature. It constitutes a distinctive combination of bleakness and exceptional diffusion from the ultraviolet (0.2 µm) to the mid-infrared (5 µm) region. Such a structure of the spinel allows it to become the preferred genuine material for use in various Department of Defense and applications of marketable infrared window. However, it is not easy to make single crystal spinel in magnitudes more than a few millimeters through the use of conventional techniques involving high temperature (>2000 °C) melt growth processes. Alternatively, efforts to “make polycrystalline spinel by traditional hot...
9 Pages(2250 words)Essay
...Thalidomide- Its Past, Its Present and Its Revival in Cancer Research Introduction Thalidomide was introduced as an apparently safe sedative in West Germany in 1956 by Chemie Gruenenthal GmbH under the name Contergan. Properties like its speedy onset and low acute toxicity made it an attractive alternative to barbiturates and popularised it so much so that it could be purchased without a prescription. It gained widespread mass appeal in the rest of Europe, Canada, Australia and South Africa and began to be widely used in treatment for morning sickness by pregnant women. The Food and Drug Administration delayed the release of the drug in the United States of America following concerns over the results of...
15 Pages(3750 words)Essay
Optical Communication and Networks
...--------------------------- --------------------------- --------------------------- --------------------------- Optical Communication and Networks Abstract The paper gives an overview of optical communication and its contribution towards high capacity networks. The merits of using fibre as medium in comparison to the electronic/electrical counterpart have been amply brought out. The paper explains the basic transmission theory on the basis of ray optics and brings out the causes of deterioration of optical signal while propagation. The major components of optical link, that is, sources, amplifiers and receivers, as well as the optical...
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay
Optical systems
...Developments in plastic optical fibers and fiber optic sensors By Table of Contents Table of Contents 2 Part A 3 Introduction 3 Plastic Optical Fibers 4 Types of Optical Fiber 5 Quartz optical fiber 6 Glass optical fiber 6 Plastic optical fiber 6 Polymer-clad fiber 6 Types of Plastic Optical fiber 6 Comparison with Glass Fibers 7 Advantages of POF 8 Quick, Easy and Inexpensive Installations 8 High Bandwidth 9 Rugged and Strong 9 Protection against Electrical Noise 9 Simple Design 9 Extensively Used 10 Affordable 10 Disadvantages of POF 10 Applications of POFs 10 Future Prospects 11 Conclusion 11 Part B 13 Introduction 13 An overview of Optical Fiber Sensors 13 Basic Principles of Fiber Optic Sensors 14 Principle of Total Internal... ...
15 Pages(3750 words)Essay
...Plastic optical fibre Table of Contents Plastic optical fibre 3 Types of plastic optic fibres 3 Application of Optical Fibre 5  Attenuation 5  Numerical aperture 6  Dispersion 6  Advantages and disadvantages over the glass optical fibre 6 Reflection 7 Optical sensors 8  Uses of Optic Sensors 8  Natures of fibre optic sensors 9  Advantages of optical sensors and fibres over the other non-optical methods 12 Reflection 14 Plastic optical fibre Plastic optical fibre is also known as polymer optical fibre. It is an optical fibre which has been created from plastic. In most cases, acrylic is usually used as the core material while the cladding material is usually made of fluorinated polymers. There has been, however, an increased use... of...
15 Pages(3750 words)Essay
Optical Fibre Communications
...Laboratory Report of an Experiment on Optical Fibre Transmission In the space provided, write two or three short sentences that summarise the main reasons for conducting this laboratory. Optical fibre communication systems are the leading technology in the communications sector of electronics today. The requirement for large amounts of information to be passed at any one time for data or communication purposes is the main factor for development of this technology. This report details the fundamental principles concerned with the construction of a basic optical fibre communications system in the laboratory. Contents Fill in the spaces below, next to 2.1-2.3 and 3.1-3.4, to complete the...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay
Optical systems
...Developments in plastic optical fibres and wearable technology Assignment Task A: The present use and potential use of “optical” sensors, devices anddisplays in wearable technology. Student Name Instructor Name Date Table of Contents Introduction 2 Current Areas of Wearable Technology 2 Future Trends of Wearable Technology 4 Technical, Physical and Design Challenges 5 Ways to Improve the Experience of the User and Society 5 Conclusion and Recommendations 6 References 7 Appendix 9 9 Introduction Due to high technological developments in the twenty first century, the concept of wearable technology that was seen in the kingdom of science fiction as well as in technologies used for armies and navies, has...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
Optical systems
...PART A INTRODUCTION Optical fibres are the modern and most advanced form of cables that are used in the digital communication. They make use of the light signals for transmitting the data traffic. Another type is the Plastic optical fibre which differs from the other commonly used optical fibre. The overall mechanism of optical fibre includes polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The cost consideration are making them more desired in their working. Internal structure of optical fibre constitute cylindrical strand coated with plastic. It is where the light passes through. The cladding provides the outer covering to it followed by the buffer coating which serves as the outer most covering. These layers make them resistant to electrical... and...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic Optical isomerism in Thalidomide for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us