Case study on Biochemistry - Essay Example

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Enzymes play an essential role in the body of organisms. They are protein in nature and acts as a catalyst. This means they speed up chemical reactions in the body. The reaction is part of the cycle and takes place separate at each step. The reaction is incomplete in the absence of enzyme. …
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Download file to see previous pages When the cycle is incomplete, and the product is not formed, the function of the organism cannot properly take place. Without enzymes, the reactions needed for biological processes of the body would take at a slower rate or fail to take place. This is detrimental to the well-being of the organism involved. One of the most important enzymatic actions is the breakdown of fructose. This is a simple sugar found in some of foods such as fruit and honey. This is essential as it plays an immense role in supply of energy for the body. However, fructose is not a direct source of energy, but enzymes are required to breakdown fructose into a reliable energy. After eating, catabolism of fructose takes place through fructolysis. The process begins with the enzyme fructokinase and produces fructose 1-phosphate as a product. The second step is enhanced by aldose. This enzyme breaks down fructose 1-phosphate into two products: dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehydes. The products enter the process of glycolysis to ensure the body gets its energy requirement and extra glucose. The absence of enzymes necessary for the breakdown of fructose leads to poor response of the body with repeated ingestion of foods containing fructose (NLM, 2011). Explain how a deficiency in aldolase B can be responsible for hereditary fructose intolerance. Aldolase B plays a significant role in the breakdown of fructose. The absence of the enzyme leads to accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate in the liver cells (NLM, 2011). The accumulation of this substance is toxic, and overtime leads to the death of liver cells (Breakspear Medical Group Ltd, n.d.). Additionally, fructose-1-phosphate fails to release the phosphate group required for repeated ATP production and control of stored sugar (NLM, 2011). Several defects arise due to death of liver cells and low number of phosphate groups. They include hypoglycemia, liver abnormalities, and other forms of hereditary fructose intolerance (NLM, 2011). Provide clearly labeled diagrams to demonstrate: Diagram lock and key models of enzymatic activity. Diagram showing how enzymes function as a lock and key. Diagram the effect of enzymes on activation energy. Discuss the specific substrate acted on by aldolase B. Enzymes are usually specific in nature. They only act to a unique substrate. Aldolase B also demonstrates this uniqueness. Fructose-1-phosphate (F1P) is acted upon by aldolase B. This is the only enzyme that binds on F1P as its substrate. The breakdown leads to the formation of two products that are further metabolized to produce glucose, lactate and uric acid (NLM, 2011). Explain the role of aldolase B in the breakdown of fructose. Aldose B plays an essential role in the breakdown of fructose. The enzyme breaks down fructose-1-phosphate into dihydrooxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehydes (NLM, 2011). The two products enter the process of glycolisis to answer to body requirements for energy, or increased level of glucose. B. Case two Explain what would happen to the amount of energy available to a cell if the entire Cori cycle occurred and remained within that single cell (i.e., a muscle cell). In the skeletal muscles, there are few mitochondria, and yet they consume a lot of energy. This leads to depletion of oxygen and the muscles are forced to operate without oxygen. The Cori cycle is essential as it links this process with gluconeogenesis in the liver. This means that the lactate produced by the muscle cells travels through the blood into the liver ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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