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Explain the structure of enzymes and discuss their role in metabolic reactions - Assignment Example

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Title: Structure of Enzymes and Their Role in Metabolic Reactions Introduction: Enzymes represent large molecules within the body of human beings that enable increasing the rates of chemical reactions that occur in the body. They themselves do not undergo any change…
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Explain the structure of enzymes and discuss their role in metabolic reactions
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Download file to see previous pages Hence enzymes play a significant role in catalysis of these reactions without which the human bodies would work. The enzymes work by speeding up these vital reactions in the body (Starr & McMillan, 2008, p.59). Enzymes include three different categories – metabolic, digestive, and plant enzymes. The metabolic enzymes run the processes of the body, with damages and decays being repaired as well as diseases being healed. The digestive enzymes incorporate carbohydrates, proteins and fats that are required by the body. The enzymes from fresh plants enable digestion of food in the body, helping the digestive enzymes as well. Without enzymes, human beings would not be able to breathe, digest food or even move their muscles. The role of the enzymes cannot be performed by any other element present in the body, hence its importance in the body (Page, 1997, p.30). Enzyme and Its Role: Amylase: For this particular study, amylase has been selected, which is an enzyme available in the human body. The amylase enables the digestion of carbohydrates in the body. The pancreas and the glands that are generally responsible for the creation of saliva are also responsible for the production of amylases. With the inflammation of the pancreas, the amylases get released in the blood within the body (Amylase – blood, 2012). The amylases produced in the pancreas enable conversion of polysaccharides into disaccharide maltose. It is found in its active form. This is primarily because the secretory cells are not endangered when the amylases are in their active forms. Polysaccharides are not contained in these cells (Sherwood, 2008, p.614). The amylases may be of the salivary, the gastric, and the pancreatic. Salivary amylase is produced by salivary glands. Starch are the main targets of these enzymes that are broken down into maltose, that represent two glucose or sugar molecules that are in a bonded form. Gastric amylase targets those particles of starch that are remaining and enter the stomach. The pancreatic amylase proves to be essential allowing the digestion in the body (Wargolet, 2011). The figure beside represents the structure of salivary amylase as obtained in human bodies. There are 496 residues of amino acids present in amylase along with one calcium ion, one chloride ion and 170 molecules of water. The structure reflects a multidomain form that consists of three domains represented as A, B, and C. The A domain consists of a structure that is in a barrel shape. There is no specific topology for domain B, while domain C consists of a structure that is shaped as a Greek-key barrel. The pancreatic amylase is represented in the figure below that consists of different cleavage patterns. If their primary sequences are considered, they are highly homologous in form. Tests have revealed that there are 15 amino acid differences between the sequences available in the structure (My Favorite Protein: ?-amylase, n.d.). The structure of the amylases are quite different from the structure of hemoglobin that is a protein consisting of polypeptide subunits, four in number, that are held by ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and van der Waals forces. Also, there are heme pigments present in these subunits. The four subunits are two ?-globin chains and two ?-globin chains (Hemoglobin, n.d.). As far as the secondary structure of ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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