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New Malaria Vaccine - Research Paper Example

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New Malaria Vaccine: Malaria is one of the most deadly pandemics to threaten human health. It consumes tens of thousands of lives each year in sub-Saharan Africa, most of who are young children. For example, each year close to 400 million people are infected with the disease, of which a million succumb to it…
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Download file to see previous pages One of the reasons why formulating vaccines have proved challenging is due to the constantly adapting nature of malaria parasites. The latter either evolve drug-resistance or the mosquitoes themselves constantly change and become insecticide resistant. It is in this context that the thrust of new research should be based. The article by Anthony Watts, posted in his website ‘Watts Up With That?’ presents recent discoveries in this area. The article is a summary of the research paper presented in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA in September of 2010. Usually, malaria parasites use certain pathways to infect human cells. The identification of one such key pathway is believed to provide scientists will crucial leads. The research team at Walter and Eliza Hall Institute has been credited with this identification. They now believe that a new vaccine target can be produced, through which contact with malaria could be avoided. The most lethal form of malaria is caused by the parasite Plasmodium Falciparum. The ability of this parasite to invade red blood cells through numerous channels is what makes it difficult to contain. It is conventional knowledge that the parasites enter red blood cells by using proteins called glycophorins. What the researchers found is another way through which the parasite enters red blood cells. This pathway “does not involve glycophorins, instead requiring the binding of a parasite molecule named PfRh4 to Complement Receptor 1 (CR1), a common protein found on the surface of red blood cells. PfRh family of surface proteins is involved in the recognition of red blood cell receptors, which allows the parasite to attach to the red blood cell surface and gain entry.” (, 2010) Professor Alan Cowman, who leads the research project at Walter & Eliza Hall Medical Research Institute, offers more insights into the identified mechanism. For example, he thinks that the malaria parasite uses this protein as a guide. The protein helps the parasite identify red blood cells upon which it can attach itself. Cowman reckons that the PfRh4-CR1 pathway is key for successful entry of malaria parasites into RBC. By virtue of this discovery, biologists can now device the ideal combination of proteins to serve as a vaccine. It is believed that by blocking both glycophorin and CR1 pathways, the chances of malaria infection is nearly eliminated. These results indicate “that if a vaccine were to stimulate the immune system to recognize and generate antibodies to the prevalent invasion pathways, there is a good chance it would lead to a significant decrease in malaria infection.” (, 2010) This area of research is still in its infancy and pending robust clinical longitudinal trials. Paralleling the work done by the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, a team in Michigan State University has created a malaria vaccine, which combines the “use of a disabled cold virus with an immune system-stimulating gene – that appears to increase the immune response against the parasite that causes the deadly disease.” (, 2011). Similarly, another group of researchers under the mentorship of Andrea Amalfitano of the College of Osteopathic Medicine have discovered a immune-system stimulating agent. But unfortunately, this agent has proven ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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...for the parasites’ metabolism through production of various proteins. The parasites have a life cycle that starts upon entry into the secondary host; humans from the primary host; the female anopheles mosquito, which also are the parasites vectors (Sherman, 1998). Younger mosquitoes suck the blood of an infected human and ingest the parasites, whose gametes differentiate to form an okinete that further produces a cyst. The cyst with time will rapture to produce spores that migrate to the mosquitoes’ salivary glands where they infect a new person when the mosquito bites (Sherman, 1998). Pathogenesis of malaria There are two malaria development phases, the first phase being liver infection...
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...prevention strategies are indoor residual spraying, use of mosquito nets, health education, awareness promotion, community participation, intermittent preventive therapy, and mass drug administrations. Conclusion Despite of the slow pace of at which the anti-malaria efforts are bearing fruits, the future looks bright as more effective preventive and treatment strategies are sought. In fact, the recent trend in which new drugs to which the parasite is not resistant are developed, tried, and used spells hope for the anti-malaria campaign. In addition, more people in malaria-prone areas such as the tropics and the subtropics continue to develop resistance to the disease....
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...Sur Supervisor Malaria Malaria has been a major cause of global morbidity and mortality and it spreads mostly during rainy season. Humans get affected due to anopheline mosquitos. The gut of mosquito is the place where malaria protozoa develop. When mosquito sucks blood from the human body, the protozoa enters human body. Due to the process of blood circulation, the parasite reaches to the liver of the person where it multiplies. It takes usually 9-16 days before it penetrates red blood cells causing them to breakdown. The paper attempts to explore the type of microbes that cause malaria; symptoms of malaria; the system it affects and the cellular and...
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Importance of Malaria Vaccine. Challenges of Malaria Vaccine
...for integrated intervention strategies: workshop summary. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. Coleman, W. B. and Tsongalis G.J.,2009. Molecular pathology: the molecular basis of human disease. Burlington, Mass.: Academic Press. Merson, H. M., 2005.International public health: diseases, programs, systems, and policies. Sudbury, Mass. [u.a.]: Jones and Bartlett Publ. Moxham, J. and Souhami, R., L.2002. Textbook of medicine. Edinburgh [u.a.]: Churchill Livingstone. Palmer, E. S. and Reeder, M., 2001. Imaging of tropical diseases: with epidemiological, pathological, and clinical correlation. Heidelberg, Germany; New York: Springer- Verlag. Russell, P et al., 1996.Vaccines against...
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...vectors. This plan has five pillars strategy aimed at preventing malaria (WHO, 2013). The strategies include planning and implementing insecticide resistance management strategies especially in malaria-endemic places; developing innovative and new tools for vector control; ensuring that enabling mechanisms are in place; ensuring timely and proper resistance and entomological monitoring, as well as effective malaria data management; and filling gaps in knowledge on malaria prevention strategies (Sinha, 2005). Also, the WHO Global Malaria Program has been used in preventing malaria. This program has been instrumental in...
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Malaria given in combination with antimalarials that are not eliminated fast, the course duration can be reduced to just 3 days. Use of this therapy also helps control of malaria since it drastically brings down the gametocyte carriage. Severe or complicated forms of the disease can be either treated with ACT or quinine maybe employed. In order to avoid cardiac complication related to severe malaria, intravenous quinine must be given slowly over a time period of 8 hours. This injection of quinine needs to be followed with oral quinine tablets for a whole week. Quinine is also the recommended treatment for malaria in children. III. Breakthrough a. Development of a vaccine...
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Malaria my own health care but also be accessing new treatments and be of great help to others who are in a desperate need of malaria medication as a I contribute to this medical research. In actual fact, Malaria is still the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world and more especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, it is an indication that the tools available for malaria control are neither adequate nor good enough for the prevention. Therefore, participating in malaria clinical trial will help in finding a permanent solution for this disease as together with other researchers we try to find curative and preventive drugs and...
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...The BBC news website has released an article, “New malaria ‘poses human threat’”, which explains how the parasite Plasmodium knowlesi can affect human beings as well. It was previously assumed that this parasite affects only monkeys, but new research reveals that it has been seen to be widespread among human in Malaysia. This shocking news has come out through the work by an international team in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases. Though the cases studied are restricted to South East Asia at the moment, it has to be feared that it will spread in Western countries as well, through tourism. P. knowlesi resembles the less serious P....
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... & disease, 4(8), e762. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2013.286. Rts, S. C. T. P., Agnandji, S. T., Lell, B., Fernandes, J. F., Abossolo, B. P., Methogo, B. G., ... & Laserson, K. F. (2012). A phase 3 trial of RTS, S/AS01 malaria vaccine in African infants. The New England journal of medicine, 367(24), 2284-95. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1208394 Sidhu, A. B. S., Verdier-Pinard, D., & Fidock, D. A. (2002). Chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites conferred by pfcrt mutations. Science, 298(5591), 210-213. doi:10.1126/science.1074045 World Health Organization. (2014). World Malaria Report 2014.... following the understanding of Quinine by Jesuit Priests through their interaction with indigenous tribes of the New...
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