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Clonidine/Quinapril - Essay Example

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Clonidine is metabolized by the liver and degrades into four main metabolites when exiting the body in the urine. Currently, only p-hydroxyclonidine is identified by clinical research as present in the urine as a byproduct of the degradation reaction of Clonidine in patients. (DrugBank, 2011) …
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Clonidine/Quinapril
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Download file to see previous pages Research identifies a number of cyto-chromes of the heme-thiolate mono-oxygenases as byproducts of the degradation reaction of Clonidine, which may negatively affect patients who are undergoing simultaneous treatment for other conditions of the heart, liver, and kidneys. (DrugBank, 2011) The substrate ‘Cytochrome P450 3A4’, another form of p-hydroxyclonidine, may additionally influence the effect of the heart rate on the patient. (DrugBank, 2011) With the use of Clonidine, patients with existing heart or liver conditions should be monitored closely for any additional strain the use of this pharmaceutical could add to cardio-vascular, hepatic, or renal functions.
(b) The pH rate profile of the molecule and an explanation of the basis for the profile.
pH calculation is a measurement of the molarity of a solution, or the measurement of “the concentration of the hydronium ion in moles per liter” through the use of a negative algorithm. (Chem Purdue, 2011)
Clonidine is found in a number of commercially available medications, therefore in order to calculate the pH rate profile the “CLONIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE injection, solution” by PharmaForce, Inc. was chosen, in which “each mL of the 100 mcg/mL (0.1 mg/mL) concentration contains 100 mcg of clonidine hydrochloride and 9 mg sodium chloride in water for injection.” (NIH, 2011) This solution uses HCL for balancing the pH rate for clinical use. In calculating the pH rate of Clonidine, the pKa value is taken to be 8.3. (Foye, 2007, p. 403) Molecule: C9H9Cl2N3 Initial concentration = 0.1 Ka1 = 5.0118723362727E-09 ( pKa1 = 8.3 ) pKw: 14 From this the pH rate for Clonidine (C9H9Cl2N3) is = 4.6500443179791 This calculation is based upon the formula pKw = -log Kw, where the negative log of the water ion product (Kw) is used to calculate the pH rate of Clonidine in water. (Volland, 2005) Similarly, Dollery (1991) and Buchanan et al (2009) have established a pKa value for Clonidine (C9H9Cl2N3) at 8.05. (Buchanan et al., 2009) In comparing the previous calculation of Clonidine with a pKa value at 8.3 vs. a pKa value of 8.05 at the same values, a solution in sterile water, the result is: Molecule: C9H9Cl2N3 Initial concentration = 0.1 Ka1 = 8.9125093813374E-09 ( pKa1 = 8.05 ) pKw: 14 From this the pH rate for Clonidine (C9H9Cl2N3) is = 4.5250622422896 In these calculations, the formula: pKa = -log Ka is used, where pKa is equal to “the negative log of the acid dissociation constant, Ka”. (Volland, 2005) The use of HCL in the solution is evidence of the need to balance the pH levels of Clonidine when using the drug in intravenous or intramuscular injections in the patient for treatment. (c) A statement of the probable shelf life of the molecule. The shelf life of the oral Clonidine Hydrochloride tablets and the Clonidine HCL solution for IM & IV injections can be taken to be determinant on the means and method of storage. Direct sunlight, extreme temperatures, and other conditions like humidity can ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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