Influence of Drilling Fluid on oil Recovery in Homogenous Reservoirs - Essay Example

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Mining industries around the globe are under constant scrutiny as far as the treatment of contaminated water is concerned. There is mounting pressure for mining industries to adopt effective and advanced methods that are environmentally sustainable. …
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Influence of Drilling Fluid on oil Recovery in Homogenous Reservoirs
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Download file to see previous pages Needless to say, as significant as 70 percent produce of mines in the world, produce water contaminated by metals, which come from acid mines drainage and process streams (Srivastava & Majunder, 2008). The waste water, such as that containing metal and sulphate contaminates, are accompanied by far reaching environmental consequences. Moreover, the costs associated with managing these consequences are significant. This paper gives an overview of water contamination in the mining industries, followed by an exploration of the common methods under development and operation. Considering that current water treatment techniques have varied limitations, this paper proposes a way forward for mining industries to avoid water contamination.
There are various elements within the earth crust, which include hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, sodium, magnesium, phosphorous, sulphur, chlorine, potassium and calcium. These constitute 99 percent of the earth living matter. On the other hand, there are fourteen essential elements. These include boron, fluorine, silicon, manganese, iron, cobalt, and copper, among others. Metals such as Mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium, copper manganese and zinc are not essential, and their interaction with the aquatic environment is hazardous. On the other hand, heavy metals are a class of metallic elements that contain relatively high densities whose low concentrations are highly toxic. The atomic metals have atomic weight that range from 63.5 to 2006. Heavy metals can are additionally classified as toxic metals, precious metals and radio-nuclide. Radionuclides include uranium and thorium. Precious metals include silver and gold, among others (Srivastava & Majunder, 2008). Acid solutions result from the interaction of the ground or of surface water with the acidic materials, such as pyrites that are found in rocks at the mines, piles of earthen refuse and auger holes. The iron sulphide mineral pyrites are usually found near subsurface coal seams, together with compounds containing aluminium and manganese, among other metals. In the presence of oxygen, rainwater or ground waters contact sulphur to form sulphuric acid. Acid concentration in the acid mine drainage can reach as significant levels such as ten thousand times the neutral water. Evidently, this presents a powerful leaching agent with the potential of dissolving significant amounts of metal substances, as well as additional leaching substances that are common at most mine sites. Rock layers and earth above the coalmines contain traces of metals such as iron, aluminium and manganese, but can also contain other heavy metals such as lead and cadmium (Han & Chan, 2006). These metals dissolve in the acid mine drainage and are washed into water sources through run off. Eventually, such metal concentrations harm aquatic organisms such as fish. For instance, dissolved iron precipitates can kill aquatic organisms that serve as food for fishes. Iron precipitate can result in fish gill clogging. Additionally, iron precipitation in the drainage channels alter aquatic food chains; thereby adversely affecting fish populations. Treatment of waste water The concern for environmental scientists has been to establish possible ways of regulating hazardous metal concentrations and mitigate associated environmental concerns. Methods in the treatment of the acid mine drainage can be broadly categorized into two; active treatment and passive treatment methods. Active techniques entail mechanical addition of the alkaline solutions with the aim of raising PH concentrations besides precipitating metals. Passive treatment ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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