Nobody downloaded yet

Analysis of drugs in Saliva and other body fluids: Microextraction - Essay Example

Comments (1) Cite this document
With the advent of a tremendous increase in diagnostic procedures and biochemical evaluation of biological fluids, the typical lag time for analysis has been significantly reduced. …
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER91.8% of users find it useful
Analysis of drugs in Saliva and other body fluids: Microextraction
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Analysis of drugs in Saliva and other body fluids: Microextraction"

Download file to see previous pages In this article, it would be to discuss an uncommon technique in separation chromatography: Microextraction (ME). This novel technique has gained popularity in the past decade, and can be categorized as a modification and combination of the Gas and partitioning chromatographies.
Solid-phase microextraction is a comparatively distinct and a unique method in separation chemistry, which is based on the principle of chromatography. This technique introduced in the late 90s, can be used in the analysis of a solution having a very small amount of analyte.
The figure above represents the schematic representation of the single drop microextraction technique, which is in wide use today. This will be discussed in the course of this essay.
The physiological fluid saliva, which is secreted by the salivary glands in the oral cavity, could be used as a valuable diagnostic tool for detection of drugs and their subsequent separation. A normal healthy adult produces about 500-1500 mL of saliva per day (Chiappin et al., 2007). After drug administration, its clearance from systemic circulation into saliva may be a result of factors such as ultrafiltration, passive diffusion and/or active transport. Some of the major advantages associated with saliva as a diagnostic aid, are its non-invasive collection protocol and ease of obtaining samples. A majority of drugs and metabolites can be easily and readily detected in saliva, even after hours of administration. Immunoglobulins, proteinaceous molecules, lipids and psychotropic metabolites could be quantified. The extents to which drugs manifest in saliva, in comparison with urine, are much less because the glomeruli in the kidney concentrate the urine. This results in an increase of the drug-urine concentration. Additionally, the volume of urine, produced daily is significantly higher in volume than saliva, adding to the ease of collection and further study. (Chiappin et al., 2007) (Aps and Martens, 2005) Although these minor drawbacks exist, investigation of saliva for presence of endogenous compounds could be conveniently handled. Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME): The principle of Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) is based on the premise that the analyte in a sample is taken up and adsorbed on to an SPME adsorption layer. This process of adsorption continues to a point of equilibrium, following which, the solute molecules are transferred along with the SPME layer into a secondary system. Washing the adsorbed sample with the appropriate solvent brings about this secondary step. This system, which usually comprises of solvents of varying polarities, is responsible for desorbing the captured molecules. Once disassociated from the complex, the analyte molecules are quantitated using the existing robust techniques such as MS/MS or LC-MS. Essentially, the principle of microextraction rests on that of the GC. (Bojko et al., 2011) Constructive modifications of this method include liquid phase, capillary and ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Analysis of drugs in Saliva and other body fluids: Microextraction Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Analysis of Drugs in Saliva and Other Body Fluids: Microextraction Essay)
“Analysis of Drugs in Saliva and Other Body Fluids: Microextraction Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (1)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
dpadberg added comment 8 days ago
Student rated this paper as
I didn’t know how to start my document. "Analysis of drugs in Saliva and other body fluids: Microextraction" helped me out a lot! Especially the list of ideas was valuable.
Dynamics, Fluids & Energy
...?Energy, Sustainability and Renewability 517855) Introduction Access to clean energy is critical to the growth of a nation both socially and economically. Energy is required in all its manifestations to run engines, boilers, computers and mechanical machinery. It may be in the form of thermal, chemical or electrical energy. Conventional energy relies heavily on the use of fossil fuels to meet this demand. However with the current rate of consumption these energy resources are depleting at a fast pace and man is looking at other alternatives of energy to propel his development. Source: Prado Miguel, 2009, Renewable Energy sources Energy Energy is needed in all spheres of a life to accelerate growth. The traditional concept...
4 Pages(1000 words)Assignment
Body Shop Case analysis
...Body Shop Case analysis 1. Introduction In the current environment of highly competitive business, the success of the firms needs to be the major strategic goal. Indeed, in the fast changing dynamics of global business, the survival of the companies heavily relies on external contingencies and factors that significantly impact the performance outcome. The firms are therefore increasingly adopting creative mechanisms to become proactive participants of changes within and outside the society. Body Shop International has been one of the market leaders of the cosmetic industry that has created a niche market position. The various factors that have contributed to its success story have...
8 Pages(2000 words)Case Study
Alcohol and Other Drugs
...ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUGS: A SOCIAL DILEMMA In early ages, alcohol and other drugs are said to be therapeutic and has been part of any social and cultural functions. Alcohol serves as an anesthetic agent before time in the practice of medicine and healing and has been present during social events in the early days celebrating happy and thanksgiving events while drugs have been useful and recovering from such illness and prolongs the life of a sick person. But how and when did drugs become illicit and become a social dilemma that instead of prolonging one’s life it causes tragic sudden accident, crime and worst, death? When did alcohol...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Drugs: Physiological Changes In The Body
...Drugs: Physiological Changes In The Body Introduction Drugs are substances which produce some physiological change in the body. They are mostly used for therapeutic purpose for curing some disease. Other uses may involve intentional abuse of such substances. In order to identify drugs, a number of sophisticated analytical methods and tools are available today. Samples of hair, urine, blood, saliva and sweat can be obtained for analysis of drugs and their residues by very sophisticated tests which give accurate results ( However some very preliminary chemical tests are available, which can provide a fair indication of the type of drug by a mere color change which can be detected in any chemistry laboratory... .). The...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Medical Ethics in Film: Love & Other Drugs
... Medical Ethics in Film Love & Other Drugs Jamie Randall, a handsome Casanova who figures out his calling when he transforms from an electronics salesman wooing women to a pharmaceutical rep for a company called Pfizer. Under the supervision of an expert salesman, who is aware of the ins and outs of the business but doesnt possess the looks or confident charm of his new responsibility, Jamie rapidly acquires the ropes. In the year of 1996, clashing brands of anti-depressant drugs are in excessive demand. Jamie faces no difficulty in getting women to go to bed with him, but after an encounter with a beautiful patient of one of the doctors hes trying to talk into buying from Pfizer, hes stranded. He senses a real association... in paying the...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Analysis of Body Language
...expressions. His verbal and nonverbal alignments during the speech were on point. His body language supported his message such that it could easily make people believe that he really meant what he said. He looked comfortable and composed. He walked with ease, stood with ease, and all his gestures were fluid and flowing. Be that as it may, it is important to ensure that when communicating, the use of body language should be used effectively. When addressing people, it is necessary to pay attention to your body language including how you stand, your posture, how you use your hands, what you do while you are delivering the speech, among many others. Just...
2 Pages(500 words)Article
Analysis for( drugs and body class)
...despite its devastating effects in the society. Cocaine is introduced to the body using various ways depending with how the individuals wanted to satisfy their body systems. Cocaine can be snorted, injected in body, smoked, or eaten (Platt, 20). Cocaine was glamorized in the 1980s because it is a powerful stimulant and directly affects the brain. Platt stated that the drug introduces a sense of exhilaration in the user primarily by blocking the reuptake of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the midbrain. The use of cocaine makes the user a slave to drug since it makes the individual want more drugs to gratify the body’s...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Density of Fluids
...Separation of aluminum glass and plastic using fluids There are various methods used in the separation of mixtures in recyclingplants or companies. Among the commonly used methods is the use of float sinks which employs the principle of relative density. This principle was developed and patented in United States (Jody, Daniels & Pomykala , 2003).. The following is a discussion of the density of fluids used and a brief description of those fluids According to the initial assignee of this patent, the separating solution should fall with a range of density. This range was set at 0.8 and 2.9 g/cm. After this the mixture or solids being separated then separate through floating and sinking...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
For drugs and body class
... Open source essay on drugs in Ohio And answer these below questions Why Hereon becomes less used in last 7years in Ohio State. Previously, the State of Ohio has been given a red flag regarding the increase of drug abuse. In the year 2007, Ohio was one of the top ten states for high rates of several drug abuse cases. However , over the last seven years, the use of these illegal drugs as reduced.This has been made possible by a program called “ Epidemic: Responding to America’s Drug Abuse Crisis” that was set up by the Administration. It has been able to provide a national framework for reducing drug abuse by supporting the expansion of state based drug monitoring programs;recommending the secure , more convenient disposal methods... for...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
Thermodynamics and Fluids II conduits for easy transportation of working fluid fro exit of one component to the entrance of the next component. It is also assumed that all mass flow and energy are steady so that the steady state configuration equation is applicable. At state 1. Water as saturated liquid is compressed isentropicaly to the operation pressure of the boiler. The temperature increases slightly during isentropic compression. At state 2, water enters as compressed liquid and leave as superheated at state 3.The boiler together with section the section where the steam is superheated is called steam generator. Superheated vapor at state 3 enters the turbine where it expands isentropically and produces work by rotating the...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic Analysis of drugs in Saliva and other body fluids: Microextraction for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us