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Discussion and participation week 4 - Essay Example

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1. The treatment of contingencies is covered by SFAS No. 5, Accounting for Contingencies. “When it is probable that a contingent liability will be incurred but the amount cannot be reasonably estimated, or when the contingent liability is only reasonably estimate, or when the contingent liability is only reasonably possible, only disclosure of the contingency is required” (Weygandt & Kieso & Kimmel, 2003, pg…
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Download file to see previous pages ontingencies Gain is Probable Gain is Reasonably Possible Gain is Remote Disclose in notes only Disclose in notes only Nothing (Ecfa, 2011). Ecfa.org (2011). Accounting for Contingencies. Retrieved September 1, 2011 from http://www.ecfa.org/Content/Accounting-for-Contingencies Weygandt, J., Kieso, D., Kimmel, P. (2002). Accounting Principles (6th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. 2. Gain contingencies are not recognized in the income statement, but loss contingencies may be based on the circumstances. “Loss contingencies may be recorded in the financial statements after evaluation to determine if inclusion is required” (Ecfa, 2011). The probability of occurrence is the determining factor that must be evaluated to determine the proper accounting treatment. The three options are probable, reasonable possible, and remote. Each of the options has different accounting treatment based on losses or gains. The table below shows all the possibilities. Loss Contingencies   Loss is Probable Loss is Reasonably Possible Loss is Remote Amount of Loss can be estimated Record liability and disclose in notes Disclose in notes only Nothing Range of Loss can be estimated Record low end of range as liability and disclose in notes Disclose in notes only Nothing Loss can NOT be estimated Disclose in notes only Disclose in notes only Nothing Gain Contingencies Gain is Probable Gain is Reasonably Possible Gain is Remote Disclose in notes only Disclose in notes only Nothing (Ecfa, 2011). Ecfa.org (2011). Accounting for Contingencies. Retrieved September 1, 2011 from http://www.ecfa.org/Content/Accounting-for-Contingencies 3. A hedge can be defined as protecting a long position in one asset while being short in another in order to reduce overall risk (Tewales & Bradley & Tewales, 1992). If the fair value of the asset changes the investor can minimize his losses based on the use of a hedge. A hedge is a complex investment instrument that should be used only by expert and institutionalized investors. I would not recommend a novice investor in the stock market to invest in hedges. Teweles, R., Bradley, E., Teweles, T. (1992). The Stock Market (6th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. 4. The four types of contingencies mentioned in your answer are right on target. I only came up with liabilities as a potential contingency out of the top of my head. None of the contingencies you mentioned are ever included in the income statement when they are gain contingencies. If the gain contingency is probable or reasonably possible they are disclosed as a note to the financial statements. The existence of a gain contingency is a factor that can positively influenced the price of common stocks of public corporations. 5. Early extinguishment of debt typically results in either a gain or loss. In the income statement gains or loss resulting from early extinguishment of debt are included as other income. “ ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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...H0 where the mayor only has a 50 % chance of winning ( sample mean 550). Let us assume (1) that the standard deviation of the samples is 11, as then, the sample mean of H1 is just within 2 standard deviations away from the population mean of 550 ( i.e. 550 + 11x2). Then the hypothesis is H0 : µ = 550 and H1 : µ > 550 as an unlikely majority for the mayor. As discussed sample mean (X) = 572 and population mean (x) = 550 and standard deviation s = 11. Do we have evidence that the sample mean is higher than the population average of 550 ? We have z = ( 572-550)/(11 x √1100) = 0.06, where z is a z-statistic. Since z is so low, the probability that H0 is true is extremely high so we accept H0 and reject...
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