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The impact of Plant Disease on New Zealand - Report Example

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This paper "The impact of Plant Disease on New Zealand" discusses the Potato Mop-top virus as a sap-transmissible rod-shaped virus with a tripartite RNA genome and fragile straight tubular particles. PMTV is vectored only through a plasmodiophoromycete soil-borne pathogen Spongospora subterranean…
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The impact of Plant Disease on New Zealand
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Download file to see previous pages Transmission of PMTV occurs through inoculation of sap in 26 species belonging to Solanaceae or Chenopodiaceae and to Tetragonia expansa and also through grafting (A. Reavy., W. Kashiwazaki., & Barker,1995 ). In some cases, PMTV is known to be transmitted by mechanical inoculation also.

Since PMTV is vectored only through S.subterranea the infection of plants with PMTV depends on the life cycle of S.subterranea which takes about 10-14 days. The life cycle of S.subterranean takes place in 2 phases: Phase I) This is the primary stage of the life cycle initiated with the germination of resting spores known as sporangiosori or cystosori persisting in the soil as spore balls with thick cell walls into zoosporangia. These zoosporangia need water for their localization. PMTV infects these zoosporangia which are in turn introduced into root hairs, roots/ stolons /epidermal cells of the potato tubers. Following the adhesion of the virus to the host surface, the zoospores secret a thin wall, and the protoplast of the encysted zoospore is transferred to the host tissue. Phase II) This is the cytogenous phase producing resting spores. A multinucleate plasmodium is developed in the host cell forming a sac-like zoosporangium releasing secondary zoospores into the soil water which are ready to continue the infection cycle. According to Calvert (1968), once established in the field even in the absence of the host PMTV is known to persist up to 18 years. And once established it is quite unlikely to eradicate it completely and to date no PMTV resistant potato variety is known. However, potato varieties that are tolerant but not completely resistant are present. The problem lies in the fact that when these varieties are infected with PMTV they act as symptomless carriers causing the spread of PMTV to non-infected regions also.  Therefore diagnosis to conclude PMTV presence must be based on plant symptoms, electron microscopic studies to investigate virion morphology and also the serological tests. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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