Prep 12 - Essay Example

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A biological process of gene adjustment throughout generations depending on factors that support life. Since natural selection depends on physical gene makeup. A process that rely on possibilities of events on genotype…
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Evolution according to Darwin is by natural selection. A biological process of gene adjustment throughout generations depending on factors that support life. Since natural selection depends on physical gene makeup. A process that rely on possibilities of events on genotype selection for development of a beneficial trait for survival. Therefore, evolution is all about random genotype selections; whereas probability is a measure of how likely it is that an event will happen. Therefore both probability and evolutions are about the likeliness of events occurring. In genetic variation, probability measures the possible gene variations that may occur in the future generation.
In genetic drift process, rapid change in gene variation is readily noticeable in small reproductive isolated population. (Zimmer & Emlen, 2013). Smaller population is more affected by genetic drift due to less allele to balance out the effect of random changes. Small population also increases the likelihood of inbreeding that negatively affects the changes in allele frequencies over time, allowing recessive genes to be dominant over a small population hence causing the rapid genetic variation. For example, from the above experiment there is an explicit indication of abnormal frequency outcome from two flip coin results compared to a fifty flip coin results.
Factors affecting Allele frequencies: various factors can cause the dominance of allele in a given population. These factors include genetic isolation that refers to the separation of potentially interbreeding animals. This condition reduces the chances of balancing allele frequency by facilitating the development of a less dominant allele into the future generation. Selective sexual selection affects the allele frequency where only particular phenotypes get selected by mates. The allele of the chosen ones increases in the frequency and those not chosen will decrease. For example in peacock, fancy feathers males are chosen to reproduce. Another factor is genetic drift that occurs in small populations. Chance, mating, or luck can dramatically change the frequency of alleles in the small gene pool.
Buri experiment: He set up over 100 replicate populations of 16 Drosophilla flies and follows each population for many generations to measure variation in allele frequency. All of the population used in the experiment begun with 8 males and 8 females that were all heterozygous for an eye color mutation. Drosophila eye coloration for genotype was easily observed. He took 3 different genotypes which included homozygote for the mutant bw allele for white eyes, homozygote for the bw 75 allele for bright red eye, and the heterozygote allele had light orange eyes. Each generation had 8 males and 8 females in his sample; he then recorded the number of eye-color genotype and used them as parents to reproduce for the next generation. Genetic drift is responsible for changes in allele frequency. From Buri’s experiment, it is evident that genetic drift can change allele frequency in a population from 0 to 1 depending on various factors such as selective breeding selection, natural selection, and other factors.
The column frequency at 0 and 1 continue to grow higher due to rapid change in frequency of a particular allele in every new generation. Genetic variation causes the increase in frequency column. In this process, one type of allele will dominate the other due to favorite conditions for its existence. The process can’t be reversed since the other allele careers may be experiencing permanent harsh conditions for survival hence facilitates the rapid increase of the dominant allele. Therefore, resulting to the extinction of less dominant allele in generations to come.
Zimmer, C., & Emlen, D. J. (2013). Evolution: Making sense of life. Greenwood Village, Colo: Roberts and Company Publishers. Read More
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