This paper compares the content and evolution of three plant genomes – Arabidopsis thaliana, Carica papaya (Papaya) and Ricinus communis (castor bean). Arabidopsis thaliana serves as an important model system the identification of genes and determination of gene functions (The…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Download file to see previous pages
ecause of its relevance to biosecurity as its seeds contain high levels of highly toxic ricin protein which acts as a ribosome inactivator (Chan et al. 1). For the purpose of the genomic comparison, three studies (The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative, Ming et al. and Chan et al.) exploring the genome content of these plants have been used in the succeeding sections.
The Carica papaya genome is three times larger than the Arabidopsis thaliana genome but has fewer genes. In fact, Carica papaya has lesser genes than any angiosperm so far sequenced. Its genome size is 372 Mbp while that of Arabidopsis thaliana is 125 Mbp. The genome of Ricinus communis is also fairly larger compared to Arabidopsis thaliana but smaller than Carica papaya, having a size of 350 Mbp.
Compared to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, Carica papaya genome has lesser disease resistance gene analogues. It also has minimal angiosperm gene set and lacks a recent genome duplication, which is unusual for other angiosperm genomes so far sequenced.
The genome of Carica papaya is largely euchromatic but also has highly condensed heterochromatin knobs that represent 30–35% of its genomic DNA. In Arabidopsis thaliana genome too, there are euchromatic and heterochromatic regions. Most protein coding genes in Arabidopsis thaliana reside in the euchromatic regions while heterochromatin regions around the centromere have transposons and other repetitive sequences. In fact, in Arabidopsis thaliana account for around 10% of the genome, almost one-fifth of the intergenic DNA. The genome assembly of Ricinus communis is fairly fragmented with several megabase-sized scaffolds. Fifty percent of the Ricinus communis genome is found to be repetitive DNA, one-third of which is retrotranposons and less than 2% DNA transposons.
BLASTZ alignment studies of chromosomal segments of Carica papaya with syntenic regions in Arabidopsis thaliana have shown that 34.8% of Arabidopsis thaliana genes in any one segment correspond
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
(“Plant Genome Comparison Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words”, n.d.)
Plant Genome Comparison Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1657549-plant-genome-comparison
(Plant Genome Comparison Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words)
Plant Genome Comparison Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words. https://studentshare.org/biology/1657549-plant-genome-comparison.
“Plant Genome Comparison Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1657549-plant-genome-comparison.
It is also creating novel personalized ways of treating common diseases. The varied disorders that have genetic bases and that may accrue a viable treatment from the human genome project are heart diseases, diabetes, asthma, cancer, hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, and
Until today, there is still a great debate whether or not the genetically modified ingredients or organisms pose threats to humankind. Thus the question whether or not the United States government should have a
In addition to that, it has 112 unique genes and i8 inverted repeats. The chloroplast genome is a close resemblance to the Solanaceae family that has 19 rps duplicated in the inverted repeat. The phylogenetic analyses of the DNA sequences of 61 proteins can support
The human genome project represents an effort to determine more than 3 billion nucleotides located within the human genome and to identify the genes that are present. Before the project was initiated, the US Department of Energy supported work that was done in the course of several years, which culminated with initiative given by the Department of Energy in 1986.
(Human, 2006). The significance of the project is indicated by the major initiative taken by the Government keeping in view its overall benefits to the public. It is also natural that the private sector which primarily operates on the basis of profit making only seeks projects which have a scope of providing substantial returns.
Between the genome decoding and the appearance of new wonder, medicine is a great distance to reach. Usually, it takes about 10-12 years to test, to create the proper medicaments, and to release them on sale. However, what we have today, is the decoded genome only, and the human body contains about 30 000 different genes.
Sorghum plants are from the family of Poaceae, and they are usually grown as field crops. Sorghum plants have the appearance of "cane-grass," and they bear large clusters of grains.
There are two basic types of sorghum plants that are grown in Africa: white sorghum plants and red sorghum plants.
The author asserted that decoding the human genome would result in better understanding and advantages for human health. However, some scientists opposed the move fearing that this kind of project would lead to a product that would be of little benefit to human beings. The Human Genome Project began in 1990.
The level of the SHGB, whether low or high, determines the quantity of the bioavailable testosterone. This makes the assessment of the gene levels among patients undergoing tests for Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) very important. The aims of this project entail; the
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"Plant Genome Comparison"
with a personal 20% discount.