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Genes - Assignment Example

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This duplication is aimed at separating the complementary base pairs for the cell to produce a copy of itself.
Gene expression refers to the process through which the encoded data…
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Genetics Homework ID Number Questions The functions ascribed to the genetic material are replication, expression, information storage and mutation. What does each of these terms mean in the context of genetics? (3 points)
Gene replication refers to process by which the cell DNA duplicates itself before a cell divides. This duplication is aimed at separating the complementary base pairs for the cell to produce a copy of itself.
Gene expression refers to the process through which the encoded data from a gene is utilized to produce a functional product. The ability of a cell to perform many of its secretion functions is tied on the millions of genes that are expressed in a particular cell.
Information in a gene is stored in coded form inside a gene. The code is made possible through unique sequencing of base pairs in a gene strand.
Mutation refers to programmed or accidental alteration of the sequence of the base pairs in a gene. This alteration can be in the form of addition of new pairs, deletion or inversion of a section of the strand. Mutation results to alteration of the stored information in a gene.
2. Describe the double helix structure of DNA molecule, and explain how such structure and its functions make it possible for DNA to act as a genetic material? (3 points)
DNA is a polymer made up of nucleotides. Each of the monomer nucleotides consists of a 5-carbon deoxyribose, a nitrogen base and a phosphate group. The nucleotides are two purines (adenine and guanine) and two pyrimidine (cytosine and thymine). They differ in their nitrogen base. The DNA molecule a pair of polynucleotide strands held together by weak thermodynamic forces that connect the nucleotides from each of the strands making up a pair. The forces connecting the strand between alternating pairs vary making the pair coil around each other forming a helical structure.
This structure helps the DNA to be tightly packed with genetic information and occupy a small space in the cell. The negatively charged phosphate groups face the outside making the structure stable.
3. Define the concept of “Central Dogma” in biology, and the concepts of transcription, translation, codon, and the redundancy nature of codons in gene expression? Draw a diagram showing how gene works. (4 points)
The central dogma in genetics states that the coded information in the DNA is transcripted and transcribed into transportable units in messenger RNA (mRNA) which then programs them for synthesis of specific proteins.
The messenger RNA carries the coded information to the ribosomes where the information is downloaded (transcription), translated and divided into codons each having three of the four base pairs. Transfer RNA then obtains a reflection of this information in a new strand in which the base pairs arrange themselves to become a reflection of the messenger RNA strand. Guanine on the m RNA translate to cytosine on the transfer RNA, and vice versa, thiamine and adenine too translate in the same way.
The working of a gene.
References
Miller, R. V, (2000). recA: The gene and its protein product. In Encyclopedia of microbiology, 2d ed., vol. 4, J. Lederberg, editor-in-chief, 43–54. San Diego: Academic Press Read More
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